Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. student in Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 MA. In Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Prof, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Federalism is a special way of organizing the state, which distributes and fragments political power within a country. In Germany, we have seen administrative federalism, which has three distinct characteristics: first, that legislation is done at the federal level and implementation at the state level; second that this form of federalism is cooperative; third that the states participate in the federal legislative process as well as the administration of the federal government. Conversely, in Iraq the dominant discourse of dictatorship and lack of political, economic, social and cultural background have prevented the establishment of a stable federal system. The experience of Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein shows that what is called federalism is a continuation of conflict in the three ethnic and religious sections of Iraqi society. The present study aims to examine administrative and ethnic federalism in Iraq and Germany with a comparative view and has concluded that the failure of federalism in Iraq and its success in Germany is directly related to the level of economic development, and the political culture of these two countries. The study’s findings indicate that federalism is of no value per se. It is merely a tool that might have different effects from one country to another.


  1. A) Books
  2. Abbasi, bizhan (2018), Comparative constitutional law, Tehran, Dadgostar Publication (In Arabic).
  3. Ahmad, abdol-Jabbar (2013), Federalism and Centrality in iraq, Political journal, Baghdad, Friedrich Jabert Institute, Jordan and Iraq School (In Arabic).
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  1. B) Articles
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  3. Bermeo, N.G, (2002), "the Import of ustitutions", Journal of Democracy, Vol.13, No.2.
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  5. Khobravi Pak, Mohammad Reza (2006) A Critique of Federalism, National Studies, 25 (In Persian).
  6. Klingemann, Hans &WeBles, Bernhard (1999), "political consequences of Germany' s mined- member system", WZB Berlin social Science Center, No. FS, pp.99-205.
  7. Larsp, Feld & Juergen Vom Hagen (2007),"Republic of Germany: Federation publication" Australian Journal of political Science,30.
  8. Manfered.G.Schimidt (2016),"PolicyDiversity in Germany' Federalism”, Journal German Politics, Vol.25, pp.301-314.
  9. Momeni, Azadeh (2010), "The position of the legislative system in the Federal Republic of Germany", Foreign Policy journal, Vol.2, pp. 455-480. (in persian)
    11. Najafi, Firooz; Masoudnia, Hussein; Imam Juma Zadeh, Seyed Javad & Nesaj, Hamid (2016), "Federalism and the triangle of power (Shiites, Kurds and Sunnis) in the political structure of modern Iraq", Contemporary Political Essays, Vol.1, pp. 141-163 (In Persian).
  10. Munch,U.Meerwalat,K.(2006) ," characteristics of federalism" , Information politischen Bildung, 2002/275
  11. Nairi, Bijan and Mohammad Amin Ansari (2012), "The Role of Ethnicities in the Struggle for a New Iraqi Political Federalism", Journal of International Relations, 20, pp. 195-163 (In Persian).
  12. Najm Eidan, Majid & Shokr Amin, Hesam (2015), " Forms of Federal Experience in Iraq ", Journal of All Legal and Political Sciences: KirkukUniversity (In Persian).
  13. Noor Mohammadi, Morteza (2016), "The Impact of Federalism on Ethnic Conflict: A Case Study of Iraq", Strategic Policy Research journal, Vol.21, pp.196-175 (In Persian).
  14. Orzola Munch and Christine Merwald, " Federalism in German", translated by Nasser Iranpour, Unknown (In Persian).
  15. Poguntke,T.andW.B.Boll (1992), "Germany partyorganizations:A Data Handbookn party organizations in Western Democracies",1960-90.R. Katz and P.Mair .london,sage: 317-388.
  16. Rezaei, Soodeh (2015)"Presenting the model of provincial quasi-federalism as a new architecture of the country's development ", Development Strategy, 47, pp. 199-237 (In Persian).
  17. Saei, Ahmad & Moradi, Jahanbakhsh (2011), "Problems of Iraqi Federalism", International Political Research, Vol.7, pp.31-58 (In Persian).
  18. Samiei, Esfahani & Kiani, Amran (2014), "Globalization and Nation-Building in Post-Conflict Countries: A Case Study of Iraq", Strategic Studies in Public Policy, Vol.16, pp. 7-48 (In Persian).
  19. Scharpf.F (1995)," Federal Arrangements and Multi-Party systems", Australian Journal of Political Science, Vol.30, pp.27-39.
  20. Shams al-Dini, Saeed Mortazavi, Seyyed Khodayar & Kaldi, Alireza (2016), "The harms and challenges of the one-party system for federalism (a case study of Iraq under the rule of the Ba'ath party), Political Research in the Islamic World, Vol.3, pp. 49-73 (In Persian).
  21. Storum, and Roland Peter Atsimerman, Steinhart (2005), "Introduction in Federalism ", translated by Samare Nedem, Unknown (In Persian).
  22. Sturm, roland (2018),"unitary Federalism - Germany Ignors the original spirit of its constitution", University Erlangen, Nuremburg, pp.17-46.
  23. Zarei, mohammad Hossein & Rezaeizadeh, Malihe (2011), "Local government in federal and unified countries", Journal of Legal Research, pp.281-309 (In Persian).


  1. C) Thesis
  2. Aziz Mohammadi, Fatemeh (2012), "The Basic Federal Legal System with Emphasis on the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany", Dr. Mohammad Rasekh, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University (In Persian).