Document Type : Article
MA. in International Law, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University of Bushehr, Bushehr, Iran
Assistant Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University of Bushehr, Bushehr, Iran
General principles of law provided in Article 38(1) (c) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice are considered as one of the applicable legal sources to international litigations by the International Court of Justice. Contrary to treaty and custom, there is no consensus on the nature of general principles of law and how they should be implemented. The Court has taken two main approaches in this regard. The question of this research, which is based on a descriptive-analytical method, is how the Court operates in regard to identifying and applying general principles of law in cases involving human rights and humanitarian issues. The conclusion is that when it comes to matters involving inter-state relations the Court relies on general principles of law recognized by the major legal systems, while in terms of human-rights and humanitarian-law issues, it recognizes general principles specific to international law, which are applicable even without explicit consent from states and arise out of the requirements of international law.
- A) Books
- Akehurst, Michael (1975), "The hierarchy of the sources of international law". in: British Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 47, Issue 1, pp. 273-285.
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- B) Articles
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- C) Cases
- Aerial Incident of 10 August 1999 (Pakistan v. India), Jurisdiction of the Court, Judgment, I. C. J. Reports 2000, p. 12.
- Ambatielos case (merits: obligation to arbitrate), Judgment of May 19th, 1953: I.C. J. Reports 1953, p. 10.
- Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. case (jurisdiction), judgment of July 22nd, I952: I.C.J. Reports I952, p. 93.
- Applicability of the Obligation to Arbitrate under Section 21 of the United Nations Headquarters Agreement of 26 June 1947, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1988, p. 12.
- Application for Revision and Interpretation of the Judgment of 24 February 1982 in the Case concerning the Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) (Tunisia v. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), Judgment, I. C. J. Reports 1958, p. 192.
- Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Preliminary Objections, Judgment, 1. C. J. Reports 1996, p. 595.
- Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Provisional Measures, Order of 8 April1993, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 3.
- Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation), Preliminary Objections, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2011, p. 70.
- Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2005, p. 168.
- Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (New Application: 2002) (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda), Jurisdiction and Admissibility, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2006, p. 6.
- Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America), Judgment, I. C. J. Reports 2004, p. 12.
- Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area, Judgment, I. C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246.
- East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), Judgment, I. C.J. Reports 1995, p. 90.
- Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada), Jurisdiction of the Court, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1998, p. 432.
- Fisheries Jurisdiction (United Kingdom v. Iceland), Jurisdiction of the Court, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1973, p. 3.
- Haya de la Torre Case, Judgment of June 13th, 1951: I.C. J. Reports, p. 71.
- Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970), Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1971, p. 16.
- Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, I. C. J. Reports 2004, p. 136.
- Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, 1. C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226.
- Military and Paramilitary Activities in und against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14.
- Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2010, p. 14.
- Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 11 June 1998 in the Case concerning the Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria), Preliminary Objections (Nigeria v. Cameroon), Judgment, I. C. J. Reports 1999, p. 31.
- Reservations to the Convention on Genocide, Advisory Opinion: I.C. J. Reports 1951, p. 15.
- South West Africa, Second Phase, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1966, p. 6.
- Western Sahara, Advisory Opinion, 1.C.J. Reports 1975, p. 12.
- D) Documents
- Convention (XII) relative to the Creation of an International Prize Court. The Hague, 18 October 1907.
- Report of the International Law Commission, UN Doc. A/72/10, United Nations, New York, 2017
Refrences In Persian:
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- B) Articles
- Alhooii Nazari, Hamid (2014), "The position of General Principles of law in the case law of the International Court of Justice", Private law studies quarterly, Vol. 43, Issue 4, pp. 37-55 (In Persian).
- Aminzadeh, Elham & Alizadeh, Massoud (2013), " General Principles of Law and state Soverignty: contribution of a forgotten source in construction of international law", Private law studies quarterly, Vol. 43, Issue 1,pp. 155-171 (In Persian).
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- Mahmoudi, Zahra (2018), "The Nature of the General Principles of Law and Their Functions in International Law”, International law review, Vol. 35, Issue 58, pp. 329-364 (In Persian).
- Mohebi, Mohsen & Amini, Azam (2015), "The Principle of Equity and Its Lawmaking Capacity in the Jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice”, International law review, Vol. 31, Issue 51, pp. 9-40 (In Persian).
- Mohebi, Mohsen & Rezadoust, Vahid (2016), "Evolutive Interpretation of Treaties in International Law in the Light of Dispute Regarding Navigational and Related Rights Case (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua)”, International law review, Vol. 32, Issue 53, pp. 9-30 (In Persian).
- E) Theses
- Malakuti, Mojtaba (2019), The Application of the General Principles of Law in International Jurisprudence [Unpublished master’s thesis], Islamic Azad University, Bushehr Branch, Faculty For Advanced Studies (In Persian).