Document Type : Article


1 Associate Prof., Department of International Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran


International environmental law faces pluralism in both normative and institutional aspects. Some view the existing plurality with a pluralistic or specialization approach, arguing that not only it is not harmful, but that it is useful. Inspired by Kant's unitarianism, the opposite view leads to normative integration and institutional centralization. The present article, through a descriptive-analytic method and by means of content analysis, aims to illustrate the desired outlook in this field and propose an appropriate model, taking into account the existing conditions. Taking into account some managerial and sociological aspects of the topic, the paper concludes that the actual pluralism needs to achieve unity and centralism, in some sectors, so that the positive effects of specialization can manifest themselves.



    1. A) Books
    2. Durkheim, Émile (1893), De la division du travail social, Livre I, Les classiques des sciences sociales.
    3. Habermas, JORGEN (2006), The Divided West (Der gespalteneWesten), edited and translated in English by Ciaran Cronin, Polity Press Ltd, Cambridge CB2 1UR, UK.
    4. Ion D, (2012), Kant and International Relations Theory: Cosmopolitan Community-Building. Abingdon: Routledge.
    5. Kelsen, Hans (1962), Théorie pure du droit, traduit par Ch. Eisenmann, Paris, Dalloz.
    6. Kleinlein , T. ( 2011 ) Konstitutionalisierung im Völkerrecht: Konstruktion und Elemente einer idealistischen Völkerrechtslehre, Berlin.
    7. L.A. Hart, Herbert (1965), The Concept of Law, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
    8. Ricciardelli, Marina; Sabine Urban ; Kostas Nanopoulos (2000), Mondialisation et sociétés multiculturelles, L’incertain du futur, PUF.
    9. Reiss, Hans, (1971), Kant’s Political Writings, Translated by H.B. Nisbet, fourteen printing.
    10. SHANY, Yuval (2003), The Competing Jurisdictions of International Courts and Tribunals, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    11. Smith, Adam (1937), The Wealth of Nations, ed. Edwin Cann, New York.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Barchiche, D. et al, (2019), ‘ Qu’attendre d’un Pacte mondial pour l’environnement ? ‘, Iddri, Décryptage.
    3. Capps, Patrick, (2001), “The Kantian Project in Modern International Legal Theory, EJIL, Vol.12, No.5.
    4. Chen, Xunwu (2019), “Beyond Kant’s Political Cosmopolitanism: Thinking a World Constitution without a World State,  Philosophy Today, Vol. 63, No.2.
    5. Comtois-Dinel, Eve-Lyne, (2006), « La fragmentation du droit international : vers un changement de paradigme? », Lex Electronica, vol. 11 n° 2.
    6. DUPUY, P.M.,(2002), ‘L'unité de l'ordre juridique international: cours général de droit international public’, RCADI, Vol.297, pp. 432-450.
    7. Edith Brown Weiss (1999), “Understanding Compliance with International Environmental Agreements: The Baker‟s Dozen Myths”, University of Richmond Law Review, Vol. 32.
    8. Finkelstein, Larry (1995), “What is Global Governance?” 1995, pdf version of this paper is available at:
    9. Ion D, “Kant and International Relations Theory: Cosmopolitan Community-Building”, Abingdon: Routledge, 2012, P. 150.
    10. K. Anton, Donald, (2012), “Treaty Congestion in Contemporary International Environmental Law”, ANU College of Law Research, Paper No. 12-05.
    11. Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine (2003), ’La mise en œuvre du droit international de l’environnement ‘, Les notes d’Iddri, No. 4 , Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales.
    12. Martineau, Anne-Charlotte, and others, (2007), dir. L'influence des sources sur l'unité et la fragmentation du droit international, Revue Québécoise de droit international, Vol. 20-1, pp. 489-494.
    13. Tuori, Kaarlo (2013), ‘Vers une théorie du droit transnational ‘, Revue internationale de droit économique (t. XXVII).

    23.Yves, Petit (2011), ‘Le droit international de l’environnement à la croisée des chemins : globalisation versus souveraineté nationale’ , Revue Juridique de l'Environnement, No.1.

    1. C) Dissertations & Thesis
    2. GENEVIÈVE LeBLANC (2011), ‘Gouvernance internationale de l’environnement : une perspective systémique écologique pour la réforme des organisations internationales’ , mémoire de maîtrise, université du Québec à Montréal.
    3. Malviya, Chetna, (2015),’ le rôle du pacte mondial dans la protection de l’environnement ‘, sous la direction de madame Sandrine Maljean-dubois, mémoire de maîtrise en droit international et européen de l’environnement, faculté de droit et de sciences politiques Aix-Marseille.


    1. D) Documents
    2. A/73/419, (2018), Lacunes du droit international de l’environnement et des textes relatifs à l’environnement: vers un pacte mondial pour l’environnement, Rapport du Secrétaire général.
    3. A/RES/72/277, (2018), General Assembly, Towards a Global Pact for the Environment.
    4. Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/L.682 (Apr. 13, 2006).
    5. Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia), Judgment of 25 September 1997, ICJ Reports, Para. 140.
    6. ICJ Reports (1996), “Intransgressible principles of international law”, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion.
    7. ICJ Reports, (1949), Corfu Channel (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Albania).
    8. ICJ Reports, (1970), Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited (Belgique c. Espagne).



    - References in Persian

    1. A) Books
    2. Fernando, Tesón (1998), A philosophy of international law, translated by Mohsen Mohebi, Tehran: the SD Institute of Law Research & Study (S.D.I.L) (In Persian).
    3. Golabi, Siavash (2009), Sociology of Organizations, Tehran: Mitra Editions (In Persian).
    4. Kiss, Alexandre & Shelton, Dinah (2007), Guide to International Environmental Law, translated by Mohammad Said Shafiee and others, Tehran: Jangal Editions (In Persian).
    5. Koskenniemi , Martti (2007), “The Fate of Public International Law: Between Technique and Politics”, translated by Seyed Ghasem Zamani and Aramesh Shahbazi, Tehran: the SD Institute of Law Research & Study (S.D.I.L) (In Persian).
    6. Movahed, Mojammad Ali (2002), In the air of right and justice; from natural rights to human rights, Tehran, Karnameh Editions (In Persian).
    7. Rawls, John (1999), A Theory of Justice, translated by Morteza Nouri, Tehran: Markaz Editions (In Persian).
    8. Robinson, Nicholas A & Kurukulasuriya, Lal (2006), Training Manual on International Environmental Law, translated by Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hoseini, Tehran: Mizan Editions (In Persian).
    9. Zoleyn, Parviz (2016), Foundamentals of Public International Law, Tehran: The Institute for political and International Studies (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles, Dissertations
    2. Akbary lalimi, Morteza (2017), “Enforcement of Right to Self-Determination: Opposition between Human Rights and Sovereignty of Governments”, Law Journal, Vol. 80, Issue 96, pp. 61-80 (In Persian).
    3. Falsafi, Hedayatollah (2001), “Right, Peace and Human Dignity: Reflections on the Concept of the Principle of Law, Ethical Value and Humanity”, International Law Review, Vol. 19, pp. 5-130 (In Persian).
    4. Hoseini, Seyed Mahdi (2013), “International Environmental Governance and Sustainable Development Challenges in Developed and Developing Countries”, Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, pp. 31-43 (In Persian).
    5. Mafi, Homayoun & Bazzar, Vahid (2015), “Probable Causes of Fragmentation of International Law with Emphasis on the Report of International Law Commission (2006)”, International Relations Research, pp. 183-260 (In Persian).
    6. -------------------------------------- (2017), “The theory of normative hierarchy in the light of Human Rights Rules with emphasis on International Jurisprudence”, Public Law Studies Quarterly, Vol. 46, Issue 4, pp. 1027-1048 (In Persian).
    7. Maghami, Amir and Abbasali Kadkhodaei, (2018), “The Consequences of Constitutional Reading of International Law”, International Law Review, Vol. 35, No.59, pp. 7-38 (In Persian).
    8. Parvin, Kheirollah (2011), “Globalization and Its Effect on the World Transitions and Governments' National Sovereignty”, Politic Quarterly, Vol. 40, Issue 4, pp. 41-62 (In Persian).
    9. Shahbazi, Aramesh, (2010), “Some Considerations on the Unity and Fragmentation of International Legal ُSystem”, International Law Review, Vol. 26, Issue 41, pp. 13-60 (In Persian).


    1. C) Thesis
    2. Abidi Nia, Zahra (2013), “The Role of Non-governmental Organizations on the Process of International Environmental Law, from Policy-making to Execution International Non-governmental”, M.A. Thesis in International Law, supervised by Dr. Elham Aminzadeh, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran (In Persian).
    3. Mohammadi, Hamed, (2017), “The role of non-governmental organizations in preventing and combating environmental crimes”, M.A. Thesis in International Law, supervised by dr. Zarghami, Azad University, Bandar Abas (In Persian).