Document Type : Article
Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Due to the destructive effects of natural disasters in our time, protecting the environment has become necessary to ensure the stability and security of human society. Ensuring environmental security requires prevention of environmental degradation and natural disasters. Therefore, a kind of academic and practical interaction has emerged between environmental law and natural-disasters law that help them reinforce each other. Environmental law, with its mechanisms to prevent environmental degradation and adaptation to environmental change, contributes to the prevention and reduction of the adverse effects of natural disasters. It is also contributes to the growth of the natural-disasters law. By providing legal rules for emergency situations, natural-disasters law can improve the enforcement of environmental law by making it necessary to ensure environmental security. This paper will examine how environmental security can be ensured through preventing natural disasters and transforming environmental law by the implementation of legal rules on emergency situations. The implementation of such rules in environmental law through legislation and regulation can ensure environmental security. It can also prioritize the protection of vulnerable ecosystems.
- A) Books
- Alexander, David (2012), Principles of Emergency Planning and Management, 6th ed., UK: Terra Publishing.
- Beck, Uirich (2009), World at Risk, Translated by Ciaran Cronin, UK: Polity Press.
- -------------------- (1992), Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, translated by Mark Ritter, UK: Sage Publications.
- Brauch, Hans Günter (2011), “Concepts of Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks”, in Hans Günter Brauch et al.: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security: Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, Germany: Springer, (61-107).
- Commission on Human Security (2003), “Human Security Now”, United Nations, New York, USA.
- De Hon, Rene´ A. (2016), “Meteor Impact Hazard”, in John F. Shroder & Ramesh Sivanpillai (eds): Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters, Netherlands: Elsevier.
- Estrella, M. & N. Saalismaa (2013), “Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR): an overview”, In: Renaud FG, Sudmeier-Rieux K, Estrella M (eds) The role of ecosystems in disaster risk Reduction, Japan: UNU Press.
- Flatt, Victor B. (2012), “Domestic Disaster Preparedness and Response”, in Michael B. Gerrard & Katrina Fischer Kuh (eds): The law of adaptation to climate change: U.S. and international aspects, USA: American Bar Association.
- Handmer, John & Dovers, Stephen (2007), The Handbook of Disaster and Emergency Policies and Institutions, UK: Earthscan.
- Kimble, Melinda (2005), “Climate Change: Emerging Insecurities”, in Felix Dodds & Tim Pippard (eds) Human and Environmental Security: An Agenda for Change, UK: Earthscan .
- Kramer, Ludwig (2017), “The EU and the protection of the Environment through Criminal Law”, in Tiffany Bergin and Emanuela Orlando (eds), Forging a Socio-Legal Approach to Environmental Harms, USA: Routledge.
- Le Prestre, Philippe (1999), “Adapting to Environmental Insecurities: A Conceptual Model”, in S. C. Lonergan (ed): Environmental Change, Adaptation, and Security, Germany: Springer Science.
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005), Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios: Findings of the Scenarios Working Group, Vol. 1 Current State & Trends Assessment, USA: Island Press.
- Misomali, Raymond & McEntire, David (2008), “Rising Disasters and Their Reversal: An Identification of Vulnerability and Ways to Reduce It”, in Jack Pinkowski (ed): Disaster Management Handbook, USA: CRC Press.
- Michel Prieur (2016). Droit de l'environnement, 7e édition, France: Dalloz.
- Renaud, Fabrice G.; Karen Sudmeier-Rieux, Marisol Estrella; Udo Nehren (2016), “Developments and Opportunities for Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation”, in Fabrice G. Renaud & Karen Sudmeier-Rieux Marisol Estrella & Udo Nehren (eds): Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Adaptation in Practice, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing .
- Sands, Philippe; Jacqueline Peel, Adriana Fabra; Ruth, MacKenzie (2012), Principles of International Environmental Law, 3rd ed., UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Smith, Keith & David N. Petley (2008), Environmental Hazards: Assessing risk and reducing disaster, 5th ed., USA: Routledge.
- B) Article
- Doswald, Nathalie & Estrella, Marisol (2015), “Promoting Ecosystems for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Opportunities for Integration”, UNEP discussion paper, 8,9.
- C) Reports
- EC (2008), “Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy - Providing Security in a Changing World”, S407/08, at <https://www. consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/reports/104630.pdf>.
- Esty, Daniel C.; Tanja, Srebotnjak; Christine, H. Kim (2006), “Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index”, USA: Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy.
- IPCC (2001), “Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability”, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- IPCC, (2014), “Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability”, Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Wendling, Z.; Emerson, John W.; Esty, Daniel C.; Levy, Marc A.; de Sherbinin, Alex (2018), “2018 Environmental Performance Index” USA, CT: Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy.
- UN (2004). Report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change: “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility”, UN Res. A/59/565.
- UN Environment (2019), Global Environment Outlook – GEO-6: “Healthy Planet, Healthy People”, Kenia.
- UNDP (1994), “Human Development Report”, USA: Oxford University Press.
- UNDRR (2019), “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction”, Switzerland, United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR).
- D) Documents
- Hyogo Framework for action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Kube, Japan, 2005.
- ILC (2001) Draft Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities.
- International Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Bonn, 1979.
- International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, London, 1990.
- Ley Orgánica de la Administración Pública del Distrito Federal de 05_07_2017, Ciudad de México, México.
- Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR), Third UN World Conference in Sendai, Japan, March 18, 2015.
- UN A/RES/71/285, “United Nations strategic plan for forests 2017–2030”, Resolution adopted by the Economic and Social Council on 20 April 2017.
- UN A/RES/68/211, “International Strategy for Disaster Reduction”, Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2013.
- UN A/RES/72/218, “Disaster risk reduction”, Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2017.
- UNFCCC. (2015). Paris agreement. FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev1, Paris, France.
- US Code 42 C. 68: Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Public Law 93–288; Approved May 22, 1974, As Amended Through P.L. 115–254, Enacted October 05, 2018.
Persian Refrences in English
- Abdollahi, Mohsen & Faryadi, Masoud (2010), “Legal challenges of Iran’s Department of Environment”, Environmental sciences, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 143-180 (In Persian).
- Azizi Mehmandoust, Mehdi (2011), “Disaster management and environmental hazards in Iran”, Journal of Passive Defense, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 21-33 (In Persian).
- Mashhadi, Ali (2017), “Relationship between state and environment: from stateless approaches to participatory approaches”, Journal of State Studies, Vol. 2, No. 8. pp. 59-80 (In Persian).
- Majlis Researches Center, (2018), “Examination of flood status in Iran: implementations and experiences of the other states”, No. 1552 (In Persian).
- Majlis Researches Center (2020), “Examination of causes of the recent floods in Iran from environmental perspective”, No, 16435 (In Persian).