Document Type : Article
Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Theology, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
Following the characterization of the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic by World Health Organization, it was discovered that one of the early sources of the virus spread was a cruise ship. The peculiar nature of the coronavirus and the unique characteristics of cruise ships proved to be a major barrier to disease prevention and control. Due to the current international legal framework, the pandemic left negative impacts on the fundamental human rights of travelers and crews, including right to health, right to life and repatriation. The high costs of medical treatment, flag of convenience, port and coastal state conflict of jurisdiction, the self-centered approach of states to prioritize their citizens’ health and national security, and lack of cooperation between cruise-industry stakeholders caused an unprecedented crisis at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic defined a new threshold for international health crisis, so any future cooperation should be at the international level and based on solidarity between all stakeholders in order to be effective.
- A) Articles
- Alderton, Tony & Winchester, Nik (2002), “Globalisation and De-Regulation in the Maritime Industry”, Marine Policy, Vol. 26, pp. 35–43, doi: 10.1016/S0308-597X (01)00034-3.
- Baraniuk, Chris (2020), “What the Diamond Princess taught the world about covid-19”, BMJ, Vol. 369, pp. 1-2, doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1632.
- Battineni, Gopi; Getu G. Sagaro; Nalini Chintalapudi, Marzio Di Canio & Francesco Amenta (2021), "Assessment of Awareness and Knowledge on Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic among Seafarers" Healthcare,Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 1-11, doi: 10.3390/healthcare9020120.
- Choquet, Anne & Sam-Lefebvre, Awa (2021), “Ports closed to cruise ships in the context of COVID-19: What choices are there for coastal states?”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 86, 103066, pp. 1-10, doi.10.1016/j.annals. 2020.103066.
- De La Fayette, Louise (1996), “Access to Ports in International Law”, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1-22, doi: 10.1163/157180896X00357.
- Doumbia-Henry, Cleopatra, (2020), “Shipping and COVID-19: protecting seafarers as frontline workers”, WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, Vol. 19, pp. 279–293, doi: 10.1007/s13437-020-00217-9.
- Mouchtouri, Varvara A., Dirksen-Fischer, Martin, Hadjichristodoulou, Christos (2020), “Health Measures to Travelers and Cruise Ships in Response to COVID-19”, Journal of Travel Medicine, Vol. 27, Issue 3, pp. 1-2, doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa043.
- Habibi, Roojin et al, “Do Not Violate the IHR during the COVID-19 Outbreak” (2020), The Lancet Journal, Vol. 395, 10225, pp. 664-666, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30373-1.
- Hansen, Henrik L., Tüchsen, F., Hannerz, H., (2005), “Higuchi, Eka (2021), “The Problem of Seafarer Replacement Arising from the COVID-19 Pandemic and Japan’s Response: From the Perspective of the 2006 Maritime Labour Convention”, Ocean Policy Research Institute Perspectives, No.19, pp. 1-15.
- Jimi, Hanako & Hashimoto, Gaku (2020), “Challenges of COVID-19 Outbreak on the Cruise Ship Diamond Princess Docked at Yokohama, Japan: a Real World Story”, Global Health & Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 63-65, doi: 10.35772/ghm.2020.01038.
- Klein, Natalie (2020), “International Law Perspectives on Cruise Ships and COVID-19”, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, Vol. 11, pp. 282-294, doi: 10.1163/18781527-bja10003.
- Lowe, A. V., (1977), “The Right of Entry into Maritime Ports in International Law,” San Diego Law Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 597-622.
- Mendenhall, Elizabeth (2019), “The Ocean Governance Regime: International Conventions and Institutions”, Climate Change and Ocean Governance, Vol. 1, pp. 27- 42, doi: 10.1017/9781108502238.002.
- Mizumoto, K., Chowell, G. (2020), “Transmission potential of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
onboard the diamond Princess Cruises Ship”, Infectious Disease Modelling, Vol. 5, 264-270, doi.10.1016/j.idm.2020.02.003.
- Leah F. Moriarty, Mateusz M. Plucinski, Barbara J. Marston, Ekaterina V. Kurbatova, Barbara Knust, Erin L. Murray, Nicki Pesik, Dale Rose, David Fitter, Miwako Kobayashi, Mitsuru Toda, Paul T. Cantey, Tara Scheuer, Eric S. Halsey, Nicole J. Cohen Lauren Stockman, Debra A. Wadford, Alexandra M. Medley, Gary Green, Joanna J. Regan, Kara Tardivel, Stefanie White, Clive Brown, Christina Morales, Cynthia Yen, Beth Wittry, Amy Freeland, Sara Naramore, Ryan T. Novak, David Daigle, MPH1; Michelle Weinberg, MD1; Anna Acosta, MD1; Carolyn Herzig, Bryan K Kapella, Kathleen R. Jacobson Katherine Lamba, Atsuyoshi IshizumiMSc1; John Sarisky, Erik Svendsen, Tricia Blocher, Christine Wu, Julia Charles, Riley Wagner, Andrea Stewart, Paul S. Mead,; Elizabeth Kurylo, Stefanie Campbell, Rachel Murray, Paul Weidle, Martin Cetron, Cindy R. Friedman. (2020), “Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships—Worldwide, February–March 2020,” MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 69, No. 12, pp. 347–352. doi.10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e3.
- Okerman, Justin & Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, (2020), “Any Port in a Pandemic: International Law and Restrictions on Maritime Traffic during the COVID-19 Pandemic”, The Canadian Yearbook of International Law, pp. 1-31, doi: 10.1017/cyl.2021.3.
- Oxman, Bernard H. (1998), “Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 36, pp. 399-429.
- Piniella, Francisco; Alcaide, Juan Ignacio & Rodriguez-Diaz, Emilio (2017), “The Panama Ship Registry: 1917–2017”, Marine Policy, Vol. 77, pp. 13-22, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.12.007.
- Sahu, Arti & Naqvi, Waqar M., (2020), “Floating countries and corona pandemic: Impact of COVID-19 on stranded Cruise ships, International JournalOf ResearchIn Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 11, pp. 219-223, doi.10.26452/ijrps.v11iSPL1.2702.
- Sánchez Ramos, B. (2018), “Places of Refuge for Ships in Need of Assistance. Looking for the Best Response”, Peace & Security-Paix Et Sécurité Internationales (EuroMediterranean Journal of International Law and International Relations), Vol. 5, pp. 117-145. doi: 0.25267/Paix secur_ int.2017.i5.05.
- Sawano, T., Ozaki, A., Rodriguez-Morales, A. J., Tanimoto, T., & Sah, R. (2020), “Limiting spread of COVID-19 from cruise ships: lessons to be learnt from Japan”, QJM : Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians, Vol. 113, No. 5, pp. 309–310, doi.10.1093/qjmed/hcaa092.
- Schloenhardt, Andreas & Craig, Colin (2015), “Turning Back the Boats’: Australia’s Interdiction of Irregular Migrants at Sea”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 27, Issue 4, pp. 536–572, doi.10.1093/ijrl/eev045.
- Tirrell, Andrew & Mendenhall, Elizabeth (2021), “Cruise Ships, COVID-19, and Port/Flag State Obligations”, Ocean Development & International Law, pp. 225-238, doi: 10.1080/00908320 .2021.1913323.
- Tomlinson, Sarah J, (2007), “Smooth Sailing: Navigating the Sea of Law Applicable to the Cruise Line Industry”, Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 127-159.
- Yamahata, Y. & Shibata, A. (2020), “Preparation for Quarantine on the Cruise Ship Diamond Princess in Japan due to COVID-19”, JMIR public health and surveillance, Vol. 6, No. 2, e18821, pp. 1-8, doi.10.2196/18821,
- Zhang, Pengfei, Shan, Desai, Zhao, Minghua, Pryce-Roberts, Nicola, (2019), “Navigating seafarer’s right to life across the shipping industry”, Marine Policy, Vol. 99, pp. 80-86, doi.10.1016/j.marpol.2018.10.002.
- B) Documents
- Circular Letter No.4204/Add.18, “Joint Statement IMO-ICAO-ILO on designation of seafarers, marine personnel, fishing vessel personnel, offshore energy sector personnel, aviation personnel, air cargo supply chain personnel and service provider personnel at airports and ports as key workers, and on facilitation of crew changes in ports and airports in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic”, 26 May 2020e.International Health Regulations, 23 May 2005, 2509 UNTS 79, (entered into force 15 June 2007).
- European Commission (EU), No. 119/01, (8 April 2020), Guidelines on Protection of Health, Repatriation and Travel Arrangements for Seafarers, Passengers and other Persons on Board Ships.
- ICJ, Corfu Channel Case, (Albania v United Kingdom), 1994.
- ILO, (2021), Information note on maritime labour issues and coronavirus (COVID-19).
- ILO, (10 July 2020), Information Note on Maritime Labour Issues and coronavirus (COVID-19), Including a Joint Statement of the Officers of the Special Tripartite Committee of the Maritime Labour Convention.
- ILO, (8 December 2020), Governing Body Resolution GB.340 (Rev.2) concerning maritime labour issues and the COVID-19 pandemic,
- ILO, (2021), Information Note on Maritime Labour Issues and Coronavirus (COVID-19).
- IMO, Circular Letter No.4204/Add.15, (6 May 2020(.
- IMO, Crew Changes: A Humanitarian, Safety and Economic Crisis, Online: https://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/Pages/FAQ-on-crew-changes-and-repatriation-of-seafarers.aspx.
- IMO, Maritime Safety Committee Resolution MSC.473 (ES.2) on Recommended Action to Facilitate Ship.
- IMO, (8 April 2016), Amendments to the Annex to the Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic 1965, Resolution FAL.12, (40), (entered into force 1 January 2018), 2016 Annex.
- IMO, (5 May 2020), (2020b) Circular Letter No. 4204/Add. 14, “Coronavirus (COVID-19) – Recommended framework of protocols for ensuring safe ship crew changes and travel during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic”.
- IMO, (20 April 2020), (2020d), “Personal message from IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim to seafarers”.
- International Arbitral Awards Reports, Commission Established under the Convention Concluded between the United States of America and Great Britain, (1853).
- ITLOS, M/V Saiga Case, No 2, (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines v Guinea), (Admissibility and Merits) (1999) 38 ilm 1323.
- MLC, (2006), title 4, guideline B4.4.6(1)
- MLC, (2006), Regulation 2.4.
- The Neptune Declaration on Seafarer Wellbeing and Crew Change, 2021.
- UNCTAD, The Review of Maritime Transport, (2019), Online: https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/rmt2019_en.pdf.
- United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/75/17 on International cooperation to address challenges faced by seafarers as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic to support global supply chains, 1st December 2020.
- Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (adopted 24 April 1963, entered into force 19 March 1967).
- WHO, (2020), Operational Considerations for Managing COVID-19 Cases and Outbreaks on Board Ships, Doc WHO/2019-nCoV/Ships/2020.
- WHO, (4 September 2020), Interim Guidance on Infection Prevention and Control for the Safe Management of a Dead Body in the Context of COVID-19.
- World Health Organization. Director-General’s Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on Ebola and COVID-19 Outbreaks, (12 February 2020).
- WHO, Handbook for Management of Public Health Events on Board Ships, (2020), Doc WA 670.
- WHO, (2007), International Medical Guide for Ships: Including the Ship’s Medicine Chest. 3rd Edition.
- C) Reports
- A Current Affair Staff, (2 April 2020), ‘Why Cruise Ships Refuse to Leave Australian Shores amid Coronavirus Outbreak’, Online: <9now.nine.com.au/a-current-affair/coronavirus-cruise-ships-refuse-to-leave-australian-shores /06832 0bb-79db-4262-baa2 3dd37e9c-8cf3>.
- Beritasatu, (22 February 2020), ‘Indonesia to Send Navy Hospital Ship to Evacuate Diamond Princess Crew Members’, Jakarta Globe, Online: https://jakartaglobe.id/news/indonesia-to-send-navy-hospital-ship-to-evacuate-diamond-princess-crew-members.
- Carlisle, Madeleine, (3 April 2020), ‘Passengers Disembark Two Coronavirus-Impacted Cruise Ships in a After Weeks at Sea’, Time, Online: https://time.com/5813775/cruise-ships-coast-guard-coronavirus.
- “Crew change”, ITF and JNG joint statement, (14 May 2020), Online: Error! Hyperlink reference not valid..
- Galani, Sofia, (24 November 2020), “Persons at Sea, International Law and Covid-19,” EJIL Talk! Online:
- Government of New South Wales (NSW), Special Commission of Inquiry into the Ruby Princess (Sydney: State of NSW through the Special Commission of Inquiry into the Ruby Princess, (2020), 147, 65, 266.
- Greenfield, Patrick, McCormick, Erin, (5 May 2020), “Cruise Companies Accused of Refusing to Let Stranded Crew Disembark due to Cost,” The Guardian, online: https://www.theguardian.com/ environment/2020/may/05/ cruise-companies-accused-of-refusing-to-let-stranded-crew-disembark-due-to-cost-coronavirus.
- Greenfield, Patrick, McCormick, Erin, (14 May 2020), “Hunger strikes and deaths as mental health crisis grips stranded cruise ships”, The Guardian, Online: https://www.theguardian.com/environment /2020/may/14/deaths-and-hunger-strikes-point-to-mental-health-crisis-on-stranded-cruise-ships.
- Lee, Yimou, Blanchard, Ben, (5 February 2020), “Taiwan Bans International Cruise Ships from Docking,” Online: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-taiwan/taiwan-bans-international-cruise-ships-from-docking-idUSKBN2000AL.
- Maritime Executive Staff, (24 March 2020), “Two Costa Cruise Ships with COVID-19 Cases Head for Italy”, Online: https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/two-costa-cruise-ships-with-covid-19-caseshead-for-italy.
- Subramanian, Sribala, (22 February 2020), “The Ordeal of the Diamond Princess Crew”, The Diplomat, Online: https://thediplomat.com/2020/02/the-ordeal-of-the-diamond-princess-crew.
- Wright, Robert, (7 April 2020), ‘Virus Hampers Repatriation of 4,000 Crew on Cruise Ships off UK’, Financial Times, Online: https://www.ft.com/content/7f603d42-f05f-431b-9187-a7b1b9f683c4.
Refrences In Persian:
- A) Book
- Sohn, Louis B.; Juras, Kristen Gustafson; Noyes, John & Franckx, Erik (2011), Law of the Sea, Habibi Mojandeh, Mohammad, Tehran: Jungle Publication, First Edition (In Persian).
- B) Article
- BeigZadeh, Ebrahim; Ghari Seyed Fatemi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Seyed Hadi & Latifian, Mohammad Hossein (Summer 2020), “Corona’s Dilemma in the Mirror of International Law”, Legal Research Quarterly, Vol.23, pp. 11-57,doi: 10.22034/ JLR. 2020.185072.1639 (In Persian).