Document Type : Article


Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Theology, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran


Following the characterization of the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic by World Health Organization, it was discovered that one of the early sources of the virus spread was a cruise ship. The peculiar nature of the coronavirus and the unique characteristics of cruise ships proved to be a major barrier to disease prevention and control. Due to the current international legal framework, the pandemic left negative impacts on the fundamental human rights of travelers and crews, including right to health, right to life and repatriation. The high costs of medical treatment, flag of convenience, port and coastal state conflict of jurisdiction, the self-centered approach of states to prioritize their citizens’ health and national security, and lack of cooperation between cruise-industry stakeholders caused an unprecedented crisis at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic defined a new threshold for international health crisis, so any future cooperation should be at the international level and based on solidarity between all stakeholders in order to be effective.


  1. انگلیسی

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    1. B) Documents
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    Refrences In Persian:

    1. A) Book
    2. Sohn, Louis B.; Juras, Kristen Gustafson; Noyes, John & Franckx, Erik (2011), Law of the Sea, Habibi Mojandeh, Mohammad, Tehran: Jungle Publication, First Edition (In Persian).


    1. B) Article
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