Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. in International law, Department of Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Department of Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran & Associate Prof., Shahid Beheshty University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Prof., Department of Law, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran


The topic of cultural diversity is one of the most important topics of international law and the international society in order to standardize and assign appropriate protective regulations for it, is still in the beginning of the way. Considering the seriousness of cultural diversity in the ear of globalization, this topic has become more noticeable in international field. Reading that protecting cultural diversity is counted a value and also some of the developed countries are at the head of the imposing their own cultures, so making indispensable a convention under the title of Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions by UNESCO, we need to examine what is cultural diversity and what is the relationship between it and the process of globalization? And does globalization negate cultural diversity or deepen it ? This research is based on this theory that there is protection of cultural diversity in international law and approval of UNESCO convention, causes a noticeable help in protecting cultural diversity. In fact, what is threatening the cultural diversity of the world is not the process of globalization but the way governments treat it, so globalization will not only negate cultural diversity but also deepen it. The present research is divided to two sections. At first section we familiarize with the general concept of cultural diversity and after presenting a comprehensive description of it, we pay attention to evolution of it and then examine the aims and basic elements of it. At the end after designing necessary and scientific preliminaries, the second chapter examines the challenges of cultural diversity in the age of globalization.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Smiers, Joost (2003), Arts Under Pressure :Promoting Cultural Diversity in the Age of Globalization, Published by Zed Books.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Beat Graber,Christoph (2006), "The new UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity : A Counterbalance to the WTO?", Journal of International Economic Law (JIEL), Vol.9 No.3.
    3. Benhamou, Francoie & Peltier, Stephanie (2005), " How can we assess cultural diversity ? ", Brussels, Evidence from the French Publishing Industry Francoise Benhamou & Stephanie Peltier conference in honour of Victor Ginsburgu.
    4. Francioni, Francesco(2004), "Beyond State Sovereignty: The Protection of Cultural Heritage as a Shared Interest of Humanity", Francioni Type.
    5. Hahn, Michael (2006) , "A Clash Cultures? The UNESCO Diversity Convention and International Trade Law", Journal of International Economic Law (JIEL),Vol. 9, No.3.
    6. Imai, Kunihiko (2006), "Culture, Civilization, or Economy? Test of the Clash of Civilizations Thesis", International Journal on World Peace.
    7. Khachaturian, Alex, "The New Cultural Diversity Convention and Its Implications on the WTO International Trade Regime : A Critical Comparative Analysis", Texas International Law Journal, Vol.42:191.
    8. Mattelart, Armand (2005), "Cultural Diversity Belongs to Us All ", Le Monde Diplomatique.
    9. Neil, Garry (2006), "Assessing the Effectiveness of UNESCO s New Convention on Cultural Diversity", Global Media and Communication [ 1742 7665 2:2 ],Vol. 2, No.2.
    10. Rothkop, David (1997), "In Praise of Cultural Imperialism? Effects of Globalization on Culture", Globalization Policy Forum.
    11. Throsby, David (2004), "Cultural Diversity, Sweetness and Light? Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary Global Economy", British Council.


    1. C) Documents
    2. The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, UNESCO, 1972.
    3. The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage,UNESCO,2003.
    4. The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions,UNESCO <Paris,20 October 2005.
    5. International Network for Cultural Diversity (INCD),Canadian Conference of the Art, draft of January 2003,Ottawa,Canada.
    6. Islamic Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the 4 th Islamic Conference of Culture Ministers,Algiers,December 2004.
    7. United Nations Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR)
    8. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity,, Adopted by the 31st Session of the General Conference of UNESCO,Paris,2 November 2001.


    References in Persian

    1. A) Books
    2. Amir Arjmand, Ardeshir & Robinson, Mary (2007), Collection of International Human Rights Documents, Global Documents (part 1), Shahid Beheshti University (In Persian).
    3. Blake, Janet (2016), An Introduction to Cultural Diversity and Cultural Rights in International Policy and Law_ with Collected Materials, Shahid Beheshti University. Printing & Publishing Center,first edition (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Beigzadeh, Ebrahim (2005),” A Reflection on Cultural Diversity in International Law”, Iranian Yearbook of International and Comparative Law, Tehran, Ganj-e-Danesh Publications, No. 1 (In Persian).
    3. ------------------------- (2007), “An Attitude Towards the Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions”, Tehran, Foreign Policy Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 4 (In Persian).
    4. Phalsafi, Hedayatollah (2001-2002), “The Right to Peace and Human Dignity; Reflections on the Concepts of Legal Rule, Moral Value and Humanity”, Tehran, Legal Journal, No. 27-26 (In Persian).
    5. Gros Espiell, Hector (2003),” Universality of Human Rights and Cultural Diversity”, translated by Beigzadeh, Ebrahim, Journal of Legal Research, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, No. 38 (In Persian).