Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. Student in public law Department of the public law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, islamic azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of the public law, Faculty of Law and Social Science, University tabriz, Iran


The management and status of pension funds have always been a major concern in modern societies. In terms of functions, these funds have a multifaceted impact. The deterioration of pension funds can have serious effects on society and the economy. The situation of pension funds in Europe has long been under scrutiny, and legal studies in this area are conducted with foresight and caution. Officials realized that neglect of the pension funds could engulf these funds in a crisis of legitimacy and efficiency. Therefore, they implemented continuous reforms according to the requirements of each country. In this paper, an attempt has been made to examine the evolution of the concept of social support in European countries in the context of the welfare state. However, it should be borne in mind that the level of development of the funds is not the same among European countries. Also, the role of the European Union in implementing reforms in the pension programs of member states is significant.


  1. English

    1. A) Book
    2. Bonoli, Giuliano &Toshimitsu, Shinkawa (2005),“Aging and pension reform around the world”.Edward Elgar publishing.,london.
    3. Davis, E. Philip (2000),“ Pension Funds, Financial Intermediation and the New Financial Fandscape”, Finanzmärkte im Umbruch, Berlin.
    4. Georg carol. (2011), “pensions reform issues”, princton university press.
    5. keith p. ambachtsheer (2007),“Pension revolution”,john wiley& sons inc. new jersi.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Asghar Zaidi & Aaron George Grech & Michael Fuchs.(2006):“Pension Policy in EU25 and its Possible Impact on Elderly Poverty”, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics,pp.1-37.
    3. Bernhard Ebbinghaus (2014), “The Privatization and Marketization of Pensions in Europe: A Double Transformation Facing the Crisis”, German Policy Studies, special issue, pp.1-14.
    4. Gordon L. Clark,(2000), “Pension systems: a comparative perspective”, WPG Working Paper, No.1, pp.1-27.
    5. Karen M. Anderson & Michael Kaeding (2008), “Pension systems in the European Union: Variable patterns of influence in Italy, the Netherlands and Belgium”, university Leiden law faculty, pp.1-22.
    6. Karel Lannoo,]and others [(2014), “Pension Schemes”, Policy department: economic and scientific policy European Parliament, pp.1-74.
    7. Kortleve, N.,]and others] (2011), “European supervision of pension funds: purpose, scope and design, Network for Studies on Pensions, Aging and Retirement,(Netherlands)” Tilburg University,pp.11-52 .
    8. Markus Haverland (2007),“When the Welfare State Meets the Regulatory State: EU Occupational Pension Policy”, Journal of European Public Policy,Vol14,No 6,pp.1-21.
    9. Gilbert Mennis (2016), “Making State Pension Investments More Transparentll”, pp.1-11.
    10. Paul Schoukens (2016), “ EU social security law: The hidden ‘social’ model”, Tilburg University, pp.1-56.
    11. Werner Eichhorsyi ]and others[.(2011), “Pension systems in the EU–contingent liabilities and assets in the public and private sector, IZA Research Report, No.42, pp.15-139.


    References in Persian

    1. A) Book

    ‎1. Bonoli, Giuliano (2001), European welfare futures: towards a theory of retrenchment, hormooz homaion poor, Tehran: Social Security Organization Research Institute (In Persian).

    1. Janali, mahmood salehi (2009), Insurance law, Tehran: insurance industry research (In Persian).
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    3. Lans, Bovenberg (2012), The future of multi-pillar pensions, Raza ghazal, Tehran: Social Security Organization Research Institute (In Persian).
    4. Mackenzie, G. A.(2017), The decline of the traditional pension: a comparative study of threats to retirement security, seyed vahid mireh bigi, Tehran: Social Security Organization Research Institute (In Persian).

    ‎6. Majnoni D'Intignano, Be'atrice (2001), Insurance and social protection, iraj ali abadi,Tehran: Social Security Organization Research Institute (In Persian).

    1. Mojtahedi, Mohahad reaz (2012), Social Security law, Tabriz: Publication of aidin (In Persian).
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    4. ------------------ (2009), Developments in pension systems in the world, Researches Vol.2, Tehran: Pension fund Organization (In Persian).
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    ‎12. Ploug, Niels & Jon Kvist (2000), Social Security in Europe: Development or Dismantlement, hormooz homaion poor,Tehran: Social Security Organization Research Institute (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Heydari shikh tabaghi, parvin (2010), " Fundamentals of a multi-layered social security system " Political & Economic Ettela'at Journal, No.273,274, pp.250-256 (In Persian).
    3. Mashhadi rajabi, mona (2016)," How is the world support index calculated", tejarat e farad journal, No.25, pp.84-87 (In Persian).
    4. Modaresi alam, zohreh (2011), " look at the methods of reforming the pension system and the general framework for reforming it in the country", economicjournal, No.12, pp.123-130 (In Persian).
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    1. C) Reports
    2. Ahmadi,seyed mohamadreza & dehnavi jalal (2016)," overview of the state of social security indicators in the world and what it has learned for the country's social security system ", Social Security Organization Research Report, pp.2-8 (In Persian).