Document Type : Article


1 Prof. Department of Public Law. Faculty of Law.Islamic Azad University.Branch (south tehran) Retired Prof. Department of Public Law. Faculty of Law.University of Shahid Beheshti. Tehran. Iran

2 Ph.D. in Public Law. Department of Law. Islamic Azad University.United Arab Emirate(UAE) Branch (Dubai)


The Ad hoc international criminal tribunals, namely the ICTY and ICTR, take precedence over domestic courts in the territories of states subject to their jurisdiction. The obligation of these states to abide by the statutes and decisions of the ad hoc tribunals on the one hand, and the need to strengthen their judicial and legal systems based on the so-called completion strategy on the other, have given a local face to the administration of justice in these post-conflict territories. It highlights coherent national reconciliation plans for capacity-building in these tribunals. Accordingly, the ad hoc tribunals have implemented capacity-building programs (such as workshops, training of law enforcement forces, etc.) in order to strengthen national legal systems for the realization of transitional justice. However, the tribunals have faced challenges such as prejudiced judges and prosecutors, which have hampered the effectiveness of the capacity-building programs in meeting the criteria for the rule of law within these territories.


  1.  انگلیسی

    1. A) Books
    2. Carother, Tomas(2006), Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge, Washington D.C, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
    3. Dicey. Albert Venn (1972), Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, Macmillan, London, published in 1885, 8" edition.
    4. Osiel, M (1997), Mass atrocity, Collective memory and the law, New Brunswick, London, Transaction publisher.
    5. Krygier, Martin (2001), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Published by Black Inc, Vol.20.
    6. M. Cherif Bassiouni (2001). The Statute of the International Criminal Court and Related Instruments: Legislative History, New York, Transnational Publishers.
    7. Pistor, Katharina (1999), The Rule of Law and Legal Institutions in Asian Economice Development,Oxford University,1999.
    8. Title, Ruti (2002), Transitional Justice, Oxford University Press.
    9. Tomanoha, Brian Z (2004), On The Rule of Law; History, Politics, Theory, Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
    10. Thompson, Edward Palmer (1975), Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act, London Allen Lane.


    1. B) Articles
    2. B. Ivanisevic & J. Trahan (2004)," Justice at Risk War Crimes Trials in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro", Human Rights,Published, pp. 43-70.
    3. Boed, Roman (2001/2002)," The United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Its Establishment, Work and Impact on International Perspectives", Central European Review Criminal Justice, of International Affairs, Vol. 17, pp.59-67.
    4. Barria.L.A, Roper.S.D (2007), "Judicial Capacity Building In Bosnia And Herzegovina:Understanding Legal Reform Beyond The Completion Strategy of ICTY", Human Right,Published Spinger, Rev 9, pp.317-330.
    5. Crocker, david A (2012),"Reckoning With Past Wrongs:A Normative Framework", Published by Cambridge University,CCEIA Journal, Vol.13, pp.43-64.
    6. Brodersen, kei Hanna (2104)," The ICTY`s conditionally Dilemma, on the introduction of influence of the European de Unionis conditionality policy on the international criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia on The Development of Rule of law in Serbian", European journal of criminal law and criminal justice,pp. 220-248.
    7. Czarnato, A(2019)," law as Mnemosyne and as Lethe: quasi-judicial institutions and collective memories", Bloomsbury Publishing, Copyright, pp.115-128.
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    9. Diamond, Lary &Morlino, Leonard (2004), "The Quality Of Democracy ", No.20-. 21, Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law", Published, By,Stanford Institute on International Studies, pp.2-38.
    10. Dieng, Adama (2011), Capacity Building, Efforts of the ICTR. A Different kind of legacy”, Northwestern Journal of International Human Right,Copyright, Vol. 9, pp.403-422.
    11. Dimitrijevic, V. (2009),"Domestic war crimes trials in Serbia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Croatia; in Batt and Obradovic Wochnik", ed, Published by the EU(paris) Institute For Security Studies, No.6, pp.83-97.

    20.Gallimore,T.(2006),"The ICTR Outreach Program:Integrating Justice and Reconciliation",Arusha International Conference Center(Conference Paper), pp.1-8.

    1. Humphrey, Michael (2003)," International intervention, justice and national reconciliation: the role of the ICTY and ICTR in Bosnia and Rwanda", Journal of Human Rights, pp.495-505.
    2. Stromseth, J.E(2006/2007), "Pursuing Accountability for Atrocities After Conflict: What Impact on Building the Rule of Law?", 38 Georgetown, Journal of International Law, pp.1-130.
    3. M. Cherif Bassiouni (1997),"From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-five Years: the Need to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court", HHRJ, Vol. 10, pp.11-62.
    4. M. Cherif Bassiouni (1991), "The Time Has Come for an International Criminal Court", NICLR, Vol.1, pp.1-43.
    5. Nadya sadat Leila (2015),” 10 The contribution of the ictt to the rule of Law”, promoting accountability under international law for gross Human Rights violations in Africa, publish Brill, pp.119-129.
    6. Nicolic, B, S.Zavarko (2003),"War Crime Before Domestic Courts:OSCE Monitoring and empovering of the domestic courts to deal with war crimes", Published by,Rule of Law & Human Rights Department, Belgrad, pp.1-54.
    7. Norma Jelacic, Suzana Szabo, and Slavica Kosca-Vrlazic, eds (2013), "Legacy of the ICTY in the Former Yugoslavia Conference Proceedings Sarajevo, 6 November 2012, Zagreb 8 November" 2012",Transcribing by Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN) BiH. ICTY Outreach Programme, pp.1-217.
    8. Owada, Hisashi (2009)," The Rule of Law In The Globalizing World- An Asian Perspective", Washington University Global Studies Law Review, Vol.8, No.2, pp.187-205.
    9. Peskin,V. (2005),"Courting Rwanda.The Promises and Pitfalls of The ICTR Out reach Programme",Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.3, No.4, pp.950, 951.


    1. C) Cases
    2. Affair Akayesu n' ICTR-96-4 T, procurer c. Jugemeni, 2 September 1998. Para.16.
    3. Prosecutor v. Idiophones Hategekimana, Case No. ICTR-00-55B-R11bis, Decision on 8.Prosecutor's Request for the Referral of the Case of Idle phones Hategekimana to Rwanda .. (Referral Bench), 170 (June 19, 2008 ).
    4. Prosecutor v. Jean-Baptiste Galete, Case No. ICTR-2000-61-R11 bis, Decision on the Prosecutor v. Yussuf Munyakazi, Case No. ICTR-97-36-Rilbis, Decision on the Prosecutor's Request for Referral of Case to the Republic of Rwanda (Referral Bench) 1 65 (May 28, 2008).
    5. Prosecutor v. Gaspard Kanyarukiga, Case No. ICTR-2002-78-R1lbis, Decision on Prosecutor's Request for Referral to the Republic of Rwanda (Referral Bench), 11, 78-80 (June 6, 2008).
    6. Prosecutor v.Karmera,et al.Case No.ICTR-98-44-T,Judgment,169-173,205(Feb.2,2012).
    7. Rutdanda,ICTR,Judgment,337,370(Feb.13,1996).


    1. D) Documents
    2. General Assembly, Declaration of the high- level meeting of the General Assembly on the. Rule of law at the national and international levels, 24 Sptember 2012, A/RES/67/1. P.41.
    3. Good Practices for the Protection of Witnesses in Criminal Proceedings Involving Organiz Crime. U.N. Office On Drugs And Crime, at 16(Jan2008).
    4. The Rule OF Law and Transitional Justice In Conflict and Post- Conflict Societies, Report of the Security-General,23Aug2004.S/2004/616.
    5. The Rule of Law and Transitionsl Justice In Conflict and Post – Conflict Societies,2004,S/616.
    6. SC.Res.1503,(2003).
    7. فرانسوی
    8. Virginia Saint-James (2004), Trio repressions du jenocide Rwanda is in appended à douter question de droit, questions sur droit, étude offert à claud Lombois Pluim.


    4.‌ اهم پایگاه‌های اینترنتی



    References in Persian

    1. A) Books
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    1. B) Articles
    2. Altman, A (2007), “What Is The Rule of Law”,Translated by;Pezeshk.M, IRI:Tehran, Quarterly Journal of Legal Perspectives, Vol. 13-14, pp. 12-34 (In Persian).
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    6. Markazemalmir, A (2003),”The Concept of The Rule of Law”, IRI: Tehran: The Report of The Office of The Legal Research of The Center of Research of Islamic Council Parliament, pp.4-12 (In Persian).

    12.Mir Mohammad Sadeghi.H (1998),”Statuse of Ad-Hoc Intrnational  Criminal Tribunals (ICTY & ICTR) at A Glance”, IRI:Tehran, Journal of Dadrasi, Vol.7, pp. 20-21 (In Persian).

    1. Razavi fard.B (2009),”Overview of International Punishment Intraction Between International Criminal Law & International Law of Criminal”, IRI: Tehran, Collection of Criminal Science Articles,Mizan Publication, pp.329-398 (In Persian).
    2. Zakerian, M,Emadi.S.R (2013),”Transitional Justice & International Security”, IRI:Tehran, Journal of International Organization,Vol.1, pp.221-257 (In Persian).
    3. Zaree, M. H (2001),”The Rule of Law In The Political And Legal Thoughts”,IRI: Tehran, Journal of Mofid, Vol.26, pp.51-68 (In Persian).