Document Type : Article
Prof Law Department of the Institute of Islamic Culture and Thought, Tehran, Iran
PhD Candidate of Public International law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Due to the complexity of the nature and manner of committing corruption-related crimes, mechanisms to combat these crimes also require special requirements. One of the most important of these mechanisms is the national anti-corruption institutions, which specialize in combating corruption and have been expanding in recent years. Based on the article with descriptive-analytical method and during a comparative advantage measurement, it can be claimed that the model of institutional unity is more compatible with the legal order of the Islamic Republic of Iran than institutional pluralism. Also, in designing the proposed single institution, the principles that have not been considered in the current anti-corruption institutions of the country should be considered. Among the most important of these principles is the immunity of the officials of the Anti-Corruption Institution, the independence of the institution in providing financial credits and its internal and external accountability.
- A) Books
- UNODC, (2020), Colombo Commentary On The Jakarta Statement OnPrinciples For Anti-Corruption Agencies, UNODC, Vienna.
- OECD (2013), Specialized Anti-Corruption Institutions: Review of Models, 2nd ed, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.
- UNODC (2006), Legislative guide for the implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, UNODC, Vienna.
- B) Articles
- Jon S. T. Quah (2009), “Combating corruption in the Asia-Pacific countries: what do we know and what needs to be done?”, International Public Management Review, Vol. 10, No. 1.
- De Jaegere (2012), “Principles for anti-corruption agencies, A game Changer”, Jindal Journal of Public Policy,, Vol. 1, Issue 1, India.
- Patrick, Meagher (2014), “Anti-corruption agencies, Rhetoric Versus Reality”, The Journal of Policy Reform, Trustees of Princeton University, United State.
- C) Document
- Criminal law Convention on Corruption of the Council of Europe, 1999
- African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption (AUCPCC) (2003).
- United Nation Convention Against Corruption, (2003).
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988.
- Jordan, Integrity and Anti-Corruption Law, No. 13 of 2016.
- Jakarta Statement on Principles for Anti-Corruption Agencies, Jakarta, 26-27 November 2012, Available at: https://www.unodc.org/documents/ corruption/WG-Prevention/Art_6_Preventive _anti-corruption_bodies/ JAKARTA_STATEMENT_en.pdf
- Italy, Penal Code, Law No. 69 on Provisions on Crimes against the Public Administration, Mafia-type Associations and False Accounting of 27 May 2015
- Marie Chêne, “Anti-corruption clauses in constitutions”, Transparency International, Anti-Corruption Help Desk, 30 September 2013
- Constitution of Nepal of 2015, Available at: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Nepal_2015.pdf
- Constitution of Bhutan of 2008, Available at: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bhutan_2008.pdf?lang=en
- Jordan, Integrity and Anti-Corruption Law, No. 13 of 2016
- Law on the National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine, Ukraine,25 February 2015
- Integrity and Prevention of Corruption, Slovenia, 2020
- Latvia, Law on the Corruption Prevention and Combating Bureau (2012)
- Burkina Faso, Organic Law No. 082-2015/CNT
- Australia, New South Wales, Independent Commission against Corruption Act 1988
- Sri Lanka, Commission to Investigate Allegations of Bribery or Corruption Act, No. 19 (1994)
- Report on the meeting of the Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on the Prevention of Corruption, CAC/COSP/WG.4/2014/2, para. 63
- Mauritius, Prevention of Corruption Act, 2002
- Constitution of Fiji, 2013, Available at: https://www.constituteproject.org/ constitution/Fiji_2013.pdf?lang=en
- Kuwait, Law No . 2 of 2016 on Establishing the Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority and the Provisions on Disclosure of Assets and Liabilities, 2016
- Center for the Advancement of Public Integrity, “Funding integrity: comparing Inspector General funding approaches” (March 2018)
- D) Websites
- Hong Kong Independent Commission against Corruption, “Checks and Balances, InternalMonitoring”. Available at:www.icac.org/hk.
- Resolution 51/59, 1997, General Assembly, Available at: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/231078?ln=en
- United Kingdom National Crime Agency, “Audit and risk assurance committee: terms of reference”, available at:
- www.national crime agency .gov.uk/; and HM Treasury, “Audit and risk assurance committee handbook” (March 2016).
References in Persian:
- A) Articles
- Amiri, Saleh & Mollakarimi, Omid (1400) ,"Challenges of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the criminalization of the title of Illicit Enrichment in the United Nations Anti-Corruption Convention", Tehran University Public Law Studies Quarterly, Vol.51, Winter (In Persian).
- B) Documents
- Regulations of the National Authority and Coordination Body of the United Nations Convention to Fight Corruption, 2013 (In Persian).
- The Law on the establishment of the General Inspection Organization of the country, 1360, Islamic Council (In Persian).
- Law of the Court of Audit, 1361, Islamic Council (In Persian).