Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. student in International Law, Department of International Law, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of International Law, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Department of International Law, Qaemshahr Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran



The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), with substantial supports for asylum seekers, has been a diligent advocate of the asylum seekers’ human rights. The refugee crisis that has gripped the EU since 2011 has challenged the Common European Union Asylum System. This paper, through a descriptive-analytical method, aims to answer the question to what extent the refugee crisis affected the ECtHR interpretation of the European Human Rights Convention concerning asylum seekers? Therefore, four areas of human rights were analyzed, which are prohibition of torture and inhuman treatment (article 3 of the Convention), family reunification (article 8 of the Convention), the right of freedom and security (article 5 of the Convention), and the prohibition of collective expulsion (article 4 of Protocol no.4). The results illustrated that the refugee crisis made the ECtHR increase the scope of its interpretation concerning the asylum seekers’ human rights and demonstrated the conflict between human rights and the Common European Asylum System. Moreover, the member states must respect the human rights of asylum seekers when implementing the Common European Union Asylum System and, In the event of a possible breach, cease the implementation of the Common European Union Asylum System.


  1.  English

    1. A) Books
    2. Carrera, Sergio & Zvezda Vankova (2019), Human rights aspects of immigrant and refugee integration policies: a comparative assessment in selected Council of Europe member states. Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
    3. Ktistakis, Yannis (2013), Protecting Migrants under the European convention on human rights and the European social charter. Council of Europe, France, Paris.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Bast, Jürgen; Von Harbou, Frederik & Wessels, Janna (2018), "Human Rights Challenges to European Migration Policy (REMAP) ", REMAP and Migration,pp. 1-6.
    3. Fullerton, Maryellen (2017),"Refugees and the Primacy of European Human Rights Law." UCLA J. Int'l L Foreign Aff.21, pp. 45-69.
    4. Harvey, Colin & Livingstone, Stephen (2000), "Protecting the marginalized: the role of the European Convention on Human Rights." Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 3: pp.445-465.
    5. Lenart, Joanna (2012), "Fortress Europe: Compliance of the Dublin II regulation with the European convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms", Merkourios-Utrecht J. Int'l & Eur. L.28, pp.4-19.
    6. Selivanov, Andrey & Liubou, Kravets (2016), “The International Asylum System: History of Formation and Contemporary Challenges.”, International Relations and Foreign Policy, pp. 33-38.


    1. C) Documents
    2. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2000/C364/01, 2000, Official Journal of the European Communities, C 364/1.
    3. Council Regulation (EC) No.343/2003, Establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national, 2003, Official Journal, L.050, P1-10.
    4. European Convention on Human Rights, 1950, at “European Convention on Human Rights, as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14, and supplemented by Protocols Nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, 12, 13 and 16”, European Court of Human Rights, Council of Europe F-67075, Strasbourg CEDEX.
    5. ‘Explanations Relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights’, European Parliament, Council and Commission, 2007, OJ C 303/33.
    6. Regulation (EU) No.604/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council, (2013), Establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person(recast), Official Journal of the European Union, L.180/31.


    1. C) Cases
    2. ECJ, Judgment of 21 December 2011, N.S. & M.E. and others, Joined Cases C-411/10 & C-493/10, ECLI:EU:C:2011:865.
    3. ECtHR, Abdi Ibrahim v. Norway, App. no. 15379/16, (2019), at:
    4. ECtHR, Amuur v. France, App. No. 19776/92, (1996), at:
    5. ECtHR, BIAO v. Denmark, App. no. 38590/10, (2016), at:
    6. ECtHR, Boultif v. Switzerland, App. No. 54273/00, (2000), at concurring opinion of judges Baka, Wildhaber and Lorenzen, at:
    7. ECtHR, ČONKA v. Belgium, App. No. 51564/99, (2002), at:
    8. ECtHR, EL Ghatet v. Switzerland, App. no. 56971/10, (2016), at:
    9. ECtHR, G.B & other v. turkey. App. no. 4633/15, (2019), at:
    10. ECtHR, Hirsi Jamaa & Others V. Italy, App. No. 27765/09, (2012), at:
    11. ECtHR, Ilias & Ahmed v. Hungary, App. no. 4728715, (2019), at:
    12. ECtHR, JEUNESSE v. THE NETHERLANDS, App. no. 12738/10, 2014, at:
    13. ECtHR, K.R.S. v. United Kingdom, App. No. 32733/08, 2008, at:
    14. ECtHR, Khlaifia et al. v. Italy, App. No. 16483/12, 2016, at:
    15. ECtHR, Medvedyev and Others v. France (GC), App. No. 3394/03, 2010, at:
    16. ECtHR, N.D. & N.T. v. SPAIN, App. nos. 8675/15 and 8697/15, 2020, at:
    17. ECtHR, Ozdil & Others v. The Republic of Moldova, App. no. 14918/14, 2019, at:
    18. ECtHR, Shioshvili and Others v. Russia, App. No. 19356/07, 2016, at:
    19. ECtHR, Slivenko v. Latvia, App. No. 48321/99, 2003, at:
    20. ECtHR, Strand Lobben and Others v. Norway [GC],App. no. 37283/13, 2019, at:
    21. ECtHR, Tarakhel v. Switzerland & Italy, App. no. 29217/12, 2014, at:
    22. ECtHR, ÜNER v. the Netherlands, App. No. 46410/99, 2005, at:
    23. ECtHR, Z.A. & Others v. Russia, App. Nos. 61411/15, 61420/15, 61427/15 and 3028/16, (2019), at:{%22itemid%22:[%22001-198811%22]}
    24. ECtHR,R.K. v. RUSSIA, App. no. 30261/17, 2020, at:
    25. ECtHR. Sharifi & Others v. Italy & Greece, App. No. 16643/09, 2014, at:
    26. ECtHR. Soering v. THE UNITED KINGDOM, App. No. 14038/88, 1989), at:


    1. D) Websites
    2. “Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 005”, Council of Europe, Treaty Office, , at: 005/signatures?pauth=h3qlInPT (last visited: 02/28/2020)
    3. “European Court of Human Rights, Survey: Forty Years of Activity, 1959-1998”, (1998), Council of Europe, at: /Survey_19591998_BIL.pdf (last visited: 2020-02-28),
    4. “Our Member States”, Council of Europe, the council of Europe in brief, at: (last visited: 02/28/2020)
    5. “Conditions for membership,” (2016), European Commission, at: visited:02/28/2020)


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