Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Prof., Department of Public Law and International Law, Faculty of Judicial Law, University of Judicial Sciences and Administrative Services, Tehran, Iran

2 Researcher of The Human Rights and International Law Department of The Judiciary Research Institute, Tehran, Iran



Freedom of expression means that human beings, due to their inherent dignity, have the right to present rational findings arising from this dignity in the form of speech, writing, artwork, commercial advertising, and so on. Freedom of expression violations by states have led individuals to turn to international institutions to enforce their rights after being failed by domestic judicial institutions. Among international bodies, the European Court of Human Rights and the Human Rights Committee, which have jurisdiction over individual complaints, are able to protect individuals against states. The main question of the present paper is how has freedom of expression been reflected in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and the Human Rights Committee? This paper using a descriptive-analytical method and library findings including a review of existing instruments concludes that the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights includes  both limited and expansive protection of freedom of expression. Also in the practice of the Human Rights Committee, sometimes due to insufficient evidence, unfair decisions have been made which do not guarantee freedom of expression in a desirable way.



    1. انگلیسی
    2. A) Books
    3. Clayton,R and Tomlinson,H, (2000), The Law of Human Rights, First Edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press.


    1. B) International Cases
    2. European Court of Human Rights , lingens v austria case, B. No: 2014/12151, K.T. 04.06.2015
    3. European Court of Human Rights , Şener v. Türkiye Davası, B. NO: 9815/82, K.T. 18.07. 2000
    4. European Court of Human Rights ,Case of Karataş v. Turkey, B. No: 23168/94, K.T. 08. 07. 1999
    5. European Court of Human Rights ,Case of Magyar Jeti Zrt v. Hungary /Case Number 11257/16
    6. European Court of Human Rights ,Case of Sorguç v. Turkey, B. No: 17089/03, K.T. 23.06.2009, 24.12.2018.
    7. European Court of Human Rights Otto-Preminger-Institute v. Austria, (13470/87) [1994] ECHR 26 (20 September 1994)
    8. European Court of Human Rights, Case of Janowski v. Poland [1999] ECHR 3; 25716/94; (2000)
    9. European Court of Human Rights, Case of Tuşalp v. Turkey, B. No: 41617/08, K.T. 21.12.2012
    10. European Court of Human Rights, Handyside v. United Kingdom, B. No: 5493/72, K.T. 07.12.1976, Decision
    11. European Court of Human Rights, Müller & others v. Switzerland B. No: 23168/94, K.T. 08.07.1999
    12. European Court of Human Rights, Sunday Times v. Uk , B. No: 6538/74, K.T. 26.04.1979
    13. Human Rights Committee, Case of Alrabbasi v. Libya, No. 1860/2009, K.T. 18.07.2014
    14. Human Rights Committee, Case of K v. Denmark, No. 2393/2014, K.T. 24.07.2015
    15. Human Rights Committee, Case of kozolv v. Belarus, No. 1949/2010, K.T. 02.04.2015
    16. Human Rights Committee, Case of M.T v. Uzbekistan, No. 2234/2013, K.T. 24.07.2015
    17. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No 10: Freedom of expression (art. 19), 29 June1983


    1. ترکی استانبولی
    2. A) Books
    3. Karan, Ulaş, (2013), “İfade Özgürlüğü Hakkı, İçinde İnsan Hakları Avrupa Sözleşmesi ve Anayasa, F ed., Ankara, Avrupa Konseyi
    4. Özipek, Bekir Berat,(2013), Teorik ve Pratik Boyutlarıyla İfade Hürriyeti,İlk baskı, Ankara, Liberal Düşünce Topluluğu
    5. Suat, Kamber, (2012), İfade Özgürlüğü, İlk baskı ,Ankara, Başbakanlık İnsan Hakları Başkanlığı Yayınlanmamış Uzmanlık Tezi


    Refrences In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Körner, Stephan (2015), Kant's Philosophy, Translated by Fooladvand, Ezzatollah, Forth edition, Tehran: Kharazmei (In Persian).
    3. Mehrpoor, Hossein (1995), Human rights in the international and the position of the Islamic Republic of Iran,First edition, Tehran: Ettelaat (In Persian).
    4. Motahhari, Mortaza (2008), Islam and the needs of the time, 17th edition, Tehran: Sadra (In Persian).
    5. Motahhari, Mortaza (2009), Philosophy of ethics, 9th edition, Tehran: Sadra (In Persian).
    6. Rahayi, Saeed (2010), Religious freedom From the perspective of international law: with a look at the Islamic approach, Qom: Mofeed University (In Persian).
    7. Ranji almasi, Zohreh (2019), Public Ethics in Criminal Law, First Edition, Tehran:Majd Publication (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Bagheri, Saeed (2012), “Extradition in the Practice of European Court of Human Rights and Human Rights Committee of UN”, Tehran: Journal of Legal Research, Vol. 11, Issue 22, pp.25-52 (In Persian).
    3. Ghari Seyyed Fatemi, Seyyed Mohammad (2000), “The New European Court of Human Rights”, Tehran: International Law Review, Vol. 18, Issue 25 Winter and Spring, pp. 129-145 (In Persian).
    4. Markaz Malmiri, Ahmad (2005), “The Restrictions on the Application of Human Rights to Domestic Law and International Conventions”,Tehran: Strategic Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 26 - Serial Number 26, Winter, pp. 747-773 (In Persian).
    5. Molayi, Mehrdad (1998), “Freedom of expression and its restrictions in the European Court on Human Rights”, Tehran: Rasaneh, Vol. 10, Issue 2, Summer, pp. 30-35 (In Persian).
    6. Mousavi Mirkalaei, Seyyed Mostafa, Shamloo, Bagher, Goldooziyan, Iraj (2020),(( The Right to Counsel for the Accused on the Procedure of the UN Human Rights Committee)), Tehran: Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 8, Issue 15, Summer and Autumn, pp. 123-149 (In Persian).


    1. C) Thesis
    2. Ostovari, Maliheh (2015),(( The concept and position of the right to freedom of speech from the perspective of the European Court on Human Rights)), Shiraz: Master's Thesis, Faculty of Law and Political Science of Shiraz University (In Persian).