Document Type : Article
Ph.D. in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Biodiversity is the source of human life on Earth and includes microorganisms, plants and animals that live and communicate in water, land and air. At present, human activities at sea are not limited to areas under the national jurisdiction but also extend to areas beyond the national jurisdiction, and unfortunately the destructive effects of traditional and emerging activities have raised growing concerns about ocean health and biodiversity. Clearly, the loss or damage to the body of biodiversity poses serious challenges to the survival of human life on Earth, and addressing this important concern in the international arena will require immediate action to preserve and sustainably use it. Therefore, planning and implementation of environmental and ecological-based management projects in order to protect and sustainable use of biodiversity, such as applying new approaches in creating marine protected areas that can improve the efficiency of biodiversity conservation and marine management, is necessary. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to examine the conceptual analysis of these areas by examining existing international documents and then to evaluate regional initiatives and related international regulations in this area and the challenges in achieving this important goal.
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- Palitha T B Kohona and LiesbethLijnzaad , Letter dated 30 June 2011 from Co-Chairs of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to the President of the General Assembly , A/66/119 , United Nation General Assembly,66 sess , Item 77(a) of the preliminary list (30 june 2011)(2011 BBNJ report)para 8. see section 188.8.131.52 of chapter 3 for a detailed legal definition and explanation of biodiversity.
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- United Nation Convention on Law of the Sea(UNCLOS),1982
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Refences In Persian:
- Firouzpour, Kosar,(2019) Conservation and Sustainable use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, Doctoral thesis in International Law, Law faculty, University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian).