Document Type : Article
Ph.D. in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
In today's era, human activities at sea are not limited to areas under national jurisdiction, but have also extended to areas beyond national jurisdiction, and the destructive effects of such activities has led to increasing concern in the field of ocean health and biodiversity. Clearly, the loss or damage to the body of biodiversity poses serious challenges to the survival of human life on Earth, and addressing this important concern will require immediate action to preserve and sustainable use of it. Therefore, it is necessary to implement ecosystem-based projects such as the creating marine protected areas that can improve the environmental management of the seas. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to examine the conceptual analysis of these areas by examining existing international documents and then to evaluate regional initiatives and related international regulations in this area and the challenges in achieving this important goal.
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- Palitha T B Kohona and LiesbethLijnzaad , Letter dated 30 June 2011 from Co-Chairs of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to the President of the General Assembly , A/66/119 , United Nation General Assembly,66 sess , Item 77(a) of the preliminary list (30 june 2011)(2011 BBNJ report)para 8. see section 18.104.22.168 of chapter 3 for a detailed legal definition and explanation of biodiversity.
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Refences In Persian:
- Firouzpour, Kosar,(2019) Conservation and Sustainable use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, Doctoral thesis in International Law, Law faculty, University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian).