Document Type : Article


1 Associate Professor of International Law, Law Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 University Lecturer, Islamic Azad University, Khomeini Shahr Branch, Isfahan, Iran



The deliberate use of biological agents as a weapon in terrorist activities is called bioterrorism. Bioterrorism, directly targets human rights, endangers global health and security and terrible threat to humanity. The purpose of this article, which is done with a descriptive-analytical method, is to introduce Bioterrorism, definition of biological weapons, and state that, these weapons according to their characteristics and effects on living things and the environment are part of mass destruction weapons. Also, classification, ways to fight and legal approach to legalization of these weapons in international law have been explained. Because, one of the main concerns of authorities and international organizations is to ensure global health and security and the purpose of international law is to control and prohibit the use of such weapons. But many of the solutions offered by these organizations have not been successful.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Bentley, Michelle (2014), Weapons of Mass Destruction and US Foreign Policy: The Strategic Use of a Concept, Routledge
    3. British Medical Association (1999), Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity. London: Harwood academic publisher.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Syra, S, Madad (2014), "An Emerging Global Health Threat". Journal of Bioterrorism and Biodefense, Vol..5, pp.1-6.
    3. C) Instruments
    4. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, 10 April 1972.
    5. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, Paris 13 January 1993.
    6. Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases and of Bacteriological Method of Warfare, Geneva, 17 June 1925


    Refrences In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Abbasi, Mahmoud (2016), Bioterrorism and Human Rights, Tehran: Ministry of Justice (In Persian).
    3. Bahrami, Hassan; Karmi, Ali & Jovanmard, Roghieh (2016), Healthy lifestyle, Tehran, Yarras (In Persian).
    4. Daryaei, Mohammad (2014), Bioterrorism in Western Medicine, Tehran: Arman Rushd (In Persian).
    5. Dastghaib, Mohammad Reza (2015), Weapons of Mass Destruction from the Perspective of Islam and International Humanitarian Law, Vol.3, Tehran: Mizan Publishing House (In Persian).
    6. Ghanikhelo, Kivan (2007), with foreword by Hossein Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Nuclear Terrorism, Tehran:Khorsandi (In Persian).
    7. Iftikhari Nabovi-Tabatabaei, Hamidreza (2016), Bioterrorism and International Institutions, Tehran: Khorsandi (In Persian).
    8. Karmi, Ali (2015), Bioterrorism (collection of articles), second edition, Tehran: Hilal (In Persian).
    9. Mirzaei, Ahmed (2018), Diplomacy of Biological Weapons Control, Tehran:Malik Ashtar University of Technology (In Persian).
    10. Mumtaz, Jamshid (1998), International Law of Weapons of Mass Destruction, translation and research: Amirhossein Ranjbaran, Tehran: Dadgostar Publishing House (In Persian).
    11. Norris, John (2004), New War, translated by Mohammad Ebrahim Minaei, Tehran: Imam Hossein University Press (In Persian).
    12. Saed, Nader (2007), Humanitarian Law and nuclear weapons, first edition, Tehran: Shahr Danesh Institute of Legal Studies and Research (In Persian).
    13. Seyed Fatemi, Mohammad Qari (2016), Human Rights in the Contemporary World, fifth edition, Tehran: Negah Masares Publishing House (In Persian).
    14. Shahhosseini, Mohammad Hossein (2012), Defense against biological warfare and bioterrorism, Vol. 1 & 2, Tehran: Basij Resistance Force Research Organization (In Persian).
    15. Ziyai Begdali, Mohammadreza (1995), Laws of War, Tehran: Allameh Tabatabai University (In Persian).
    16. Ziyaibigdali, Mohammad Reza (2014), International Humanitarian Law, Tehran, Ganj Danesh, third edition (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Alipour, Hassan (2006), "Nuclear Terrorism", Strategic Studies Quarterly, Tehran, Year 9, Number 33, pp. 580-605 (In Persian).
    3. Moradipashtdarbandi, Mohammadreza (2015), "Bioterrorism and the strategies to deal with it by looking at the standards of international law", Journal of Political Science, Law and Jurisprudence Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4/1, pp. 100-110 (In Persian).
    4. Motaghi, Afshin; Kavianirad, Murad & Sajjad Najafi (2014), "The relationship between environmental security and national security (a case study of bioterrorism)", Majles and Strategy Quarterly, Tehran: No. 83, pp. 76-100 (In Persian).
    5. Mousavi, Fazlullah & Chehltani, Mehdi (2018), "Legal standards in preventing terrorists from obtaining biological weapons", in: Collection of articles on terrorism, pathology, actors and structures, Tehran:World Islamic Peace Forum, pp. 147-161 (In Persian).
    6. Saed, Nader (2004), "Process of Disarmament and Arms Control in Charter International Law: From Opinion to Practice", Journal of Law and Political Science of Tehran University, No. 65, pp. 59-85 (In Persian).
    7. Zarebidaki, Majid & Belalimod, Mehdi (2014), "Bioterrorism and biological weapons, from the past to the present", scientific journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Vol.22, No. 3, pp.182 – 198 (In Persian).
    8. Zargan, Jamil & Dehnavi, Jalil (2015), "Security threats of bioterrorism and ways to deal with it with passive defense approach", Quarterly Journal of Protection and Security Research of Imam Hossein University (AS), No. 19, pp. 91-110 (In Persian).