Document Type : Article
1 Professor, Faculty of International Relations, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D in International Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Common categories in the field of human rights generally refer to three groups or three generations of human rights, the first and second generations are called civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights, respectively. This division is mainly due to the existence of conflicting views on the nature of these two categories of rights. Economic and social rights in the international human rights literature have no long history and therefore the conceptual discussions around them are insufficient and few. This article will make a comparative study of the views of two important international instruments on the nature of economic and social rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the most important United Nations document in the field of human rights and the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, expresses an Islamic view of human rights that is also in itself critical of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This article analyzes the views of the two Declarations on the nature of economic and social rights, and then will discuss in detail the dimensions and characteristics of labor rights and the right to education from the perspective of the above Declarations.
- A) Books
- Beiter, Klaus Dieter (2005), The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law, Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
- Morsink, Johannes (1999), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Origins, Drafting and Intent, Philadelphia,University of Pennsylvania Press.
- Osiaty ´Nski,Wiktor (2009), Human Rights and Their Limits, Cambridge, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
- Swepston,Lee(2014). The Development in International Law of Articles 23 and 24 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: The Labor Rights Articles, Leiden, Nijhoff.
- B) Articles
- De Ruyter, Doret J (2002), "The Right to Meaningful Education: The role of values and beliefs", Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion & Education, Vol.23:1, pp.33-42.
- Donnelly, J. and R. Howard (1988), “Assessing national human rights performance: A theoretical framework”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 10, pp. 214–248.
- Eide, Absjorn (1992), "Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights", in: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights:A Commentary, Eide, Absjorn(eds), Oslo,Scandinavian University Press, pp.377-389.
- Govier, Trudy (1975), "The Right to Eat and the Duty to Work". Philosophy and Social Science, Vol.5,pp.125- 143.
- Haydon, Graham (1975), "The Right to Education and Compulsory Schooling", Education Philosophy and Theory, Vol.9, pp.1-15.
- Holmwood, John and Bhambra, Gurminder K.(2012), "The Attack on Education as a Social Right", The South Atlantic Quarterly, pp.392-401.
- Kallstrom, kent (1992), "Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights", in: Eide, Absjorn(eds), Universal Declaraion of Human Rights: A Commentary, Oslo,Scandinavian University Press, pp.357-378.
- Klepper, Howard (1996), "Mandatory rights and Compulsory Education", Law and Philosophy, No.15, pp.149-158.
- Mantouvalou, Virginia (2012), " Are Labour Rights Human Rights?", European Labour Law Journal, Volume 3, No. 2, pp.151-172.
- Mccowan, Tristan (2012)," Is there a Universal Right to Higher Education?", British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 111–128.
- McMillan, Leah K.(2010), What’s in a right? Two variations for interpreting the right to education, International Review of Education, vol. pp.56:531–545.
- C) Documents
- United Nations, General Assembly, Summary Record of the 158th Meeting of the Third Committee, A/C.3/SR.158.
- United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Drafting Committee on an International Bill of Human Rights, International Bill of Rights Documented Outline, E/CN.4/AC.1/3/Add.1.
- United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Drafting Committee on an International Bill of Human Rights, First Session, Summary Record of the 9th Meeting, E/CN.4/AC.1/SR.9.
- United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Drafting Committee on an International Bill of Human Rights, First Session, Summary Record of the Fifteenth Meeting, E/CN.4/AC.1/SR.15.
- United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Summary Record of the 14th Meeting, E/CN.4/SR.14.
- United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Summary Record of the Sixty-Eigth Meeting, E/CN.4/SR.68.
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