Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Law Department, Razavi University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Prof. Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. in Private Law, Razavi University, Mashhad, Iran



The sovereignty of the Zionist Regime [Israel] over the Golan Heights - which was part of Syrian territory before it was occupied by Israel - was recognized by the President of the United States, in a proclamation on March 27, 2019. While this proclamation can be examined from many perspectives, this paper will attempt to consider its legality and consequences from an international-law viewpoint. Based on the findings of this research, which was carried out in a descriptive-analytical way, this action by the United States violates customary international law which prohibits recognition of situations arising from the use of force. It contradicts resolutions of the UN General Assembly and the Security Council, especially Resolutions 242 of 1967 and 497 of 1981. It also violates Syrian national sovereignty and territorial integrity. From the point of view of international law, not only this proclamation will fail to formalize the separation of the Golan from Syria, it will entail the international responsibility of the United States. As such, the US government is obliged to end the said illegal situation as soon as possible and remedy the Syrian government for this decision.


  1. انگلیسی

    1. A) Books
    2. Bedjaoui, Mohammad (1994), The New Word Order and the Security Council, Testing the Legality of this Acts, MNP.
    3. Milano, Enrico (2006), Unlawful Territorial Situations in International Law, martinus nijhoff publishers, Boston.
    4. Lassa, Francis, Lawrence (1963), Intermational law, London, 8ed.
    5. Ryan, Frank Wesley (1950), The Stimson Doctrine in International Law, Department of International Relations, Stanford University.


    1. B) Articles
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    3. Iwanenburg, Martin (Dec. 2004), “Existetialism in Iraq: Security Council resolution 1483 and the Law of o ccupation”, Internatial Review of Red cross, Vol.86.
    4. Kirgis, Fredric (July 2001), “Security Council Covernance of Ppst – conflict societies: Aplea for good Faith and in formed decision – making” , American Journal of International Law, Vol. 95, No.3.
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    6. Sassòli, marco (2005), “Legislation and Maintenance of Public Order and Civil Life by Occupying Powers”, The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No.4


    1. C) Judgements and Awards
    2. ICJ Rep 6, 2006, Armed Activities on the Territory of the comgo (Democratic Republic of Congo v Uganda)
    3. ICJ Rep, 1986, In the case concerning military Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)
    4. ICJ. Rep, 2004, (Legal consequences of the construction o f a wall in the Occupied Pulestinian Territory)
    5. ICJ. Rep, 1993, (Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro)


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