Document Type : Article


1 Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Phd in General International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaii University, Tehran, Iran



The Sustainable development is an approach to development in which economic, social and environmental considerations are taken into account to ensuring the continuation of enjoyment of development benefits for the present generation as well as for the future generations. This approach is directly related to realization of the human rights of members of the society in development process, so that non-compliance with environmental considerations of the sustainable development has negative effects on ensuring human rights in the society. In other side, Human-centered development will provide necessary basis for ensuring of environmental considerations. In the meantime, although today the exercise of full sovereignty of states over extraction of their natural resources and national development programs is accepted by the international community. Nevertheless, this approach to exercise of sovereignty has some adverse trans-boundary environmental effects, which in turn have devastating effects on the human rights of members of affected communities. A situation that create a necessity for making restriction about freedom of states in exploitation of their natural resources as well as formulation and implementation of their national development plans, in order to complying with environmental considerations, As an important platform in ensuring the advancement of the human rights approach in the development process of other societies.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Bedjaoui, Mohammed (1979), Toward a New International Economic Order, Paris, Unesco.
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    1. B) Articles
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    1. C) Reports
    2. Akram, Zamir (2017), Report of the Working Group on the Right to Development on its Eighteenth Session, A/HRC/36/35, Human Rights Council, Geneva, Switzerland.
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    4. Knox, John H. (2013), Report of the Independent Expert on the Issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Environment, A/HRC/25/53, Human Rights Council.
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    6. the World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987), Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
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    9. World Bank (2010), World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change, , Washington D.C, USA


    1. D) Thesis
    2. Schrijver, Nico. (1995), Sovereignty over Natural Resources: Balancing Rights and Duties in an Interdependent World, Thesis for Ph. D in Public International Law, University of Groningen, Groningen: Netherlands.


    1. E) Judgments
    2. Ad Hoc Tribunal, Libyan American Oil Co (LIAMCO) v. The Government of the Libyan Arab Republic, 12 April 1977, Yearbook of Commercial Arbitration, Vol.VI, Kluwer Law International, 1981
    3. Ad-Hoc-Award, Kuwait v. The American Independent Oil Company (AMINOIL), 21 ILM 976, 24 March 1982
    4. ICJ, Case Concerning the Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay, Argentina v. Uruguay, Judgment of 20 April 2010
    5. ICJ, Certain Activities Carried out by Nicaragua in The Border Area, CostaRica v. Nicaragua and Construction of a Road in CostaRica along The San Juan River, Nicaragua v. CostaRica, Judgment of 16 December 2015
    6. Trail Smelter Case (USA v Canada), 11 March 1941, Reports of International Arbital Awards, Vol.III, United Nation, 2006
    7. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Environment and Human Rights, Advisory Opinion OC-23/17, 15 November 2017


    1. F) Documents
    2. A/RES/2200 A (XXI), 1966
    3. A/RES/S-6/3201, 1974
    4. A/RES/29/3281, 1974
    5. Paris Agreement on Climate Change, 12 December 2015.
    6. United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Agenda 21, 1992


    References in Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Kurukulasuriya, Lal & Robinson, Nicholas A. (2011), Training Manual on International Environmental Law, Translated by, Seyed Mehdi hosseini, Tehran: Mizan Publishing (In Persian).
    3. Mashhadi, Ali (2013), the Right to a Healthy Environment (Iranian-French Method), Tehran: Mizan Publishing (In Persian).
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    1. B) Articles
    2. Firouzpour, Kosar (2018), “Researcher’s Liability in term of Damages to Environment Associated with Scientific Investigations,” Vol.17, No.35, pp.243-262 (In Persian).
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    9. Vosoughi Fard, Babak (2012), “Case Concerning Aerial Herbicide Spraying (Ecuador v. Colombia), the 21th Century Trail Smelter?,” Vol. 29, Issue. 47, pp.139-158 (In Persian).
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