Document Type : Article


1 Ph.D. in Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science,‎‏ ‏University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran ‎

2 Phd candidate in private law; Faculty of Law and Political Science,‎‏ ‏Kharazmi University, ‎Tehran, Iran‎



One of the most controversial issues in the field of arbitration is the possibility of using it in the field of labor disputes. This issue that was also raised on the disputes between workers and commercial companies as their employers, has caused many disagreements. Therefore, this article examines the approach of the legal system of countries and commercial companies in this field. The findings of this study indicate that in some legal systems, various types of arbitration (mandatory and voluntary) in labor disputes have been accepted but in others, only voluntary arbitration is recognized in limited cases. In a number of other legal systems, referring these disputes to arbitration is not accepted at all. Commercial companies also have different procedures in this regard; some companies, believing in the many benefits of arbitration for companies, have chosen it as the first way to resolve labor disputes. Some other companies, despite accepting the arbitration, use it as a secondary method, ie if other non-judicial methods are not obtained and finally, there are companies that are reluctant to refer arbitration to dispute resolution.


  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

  1. رفیعی، احمد (1395)، حقوق کار، چ دوم، تهران: میزان.
  2. عراقی، عزت‌اله (1391)، حقوق کار، ج 2، چ نخست، تهران: سمت.
  3. قبادی، حسین (1398)، آیین دادرسی کار، چ چهارم، تهران: جنگل.
  4. هاشمی، محمد (1396)، حقوق کار، چ نخست، تهران: میزان.


ب) مقالات

  1. رستمی، ولی؛ اکبری، احسان (1399)، «جستاری در آسیب‌شناسی حقوقی نظام دادرسی کار در ایران»، فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 50، ش 1.


  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Books
  3. International Labour Office (2016), Resolving individual labour disputes: A comparative overview, Edited by Minawa Ebisui, Sean Cooney and Colin Fenwick, Geneva, First published.
  4. International Labour Office (2017), Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy, Geneva, Fifth Edition: March 2017.
  5. B) Articles
  6. 3. Bingham, Lisa (1998), "On Repeat Players, Adhesive Contracts, and the Use of Statistics in Judicial Review of Employment Arbitration Awards", McGeorge Law Review, V 29, pp. 223 – 259.
  7. C. Brown, Ronald (2012),"Comparative Alternative Dispute Resolution for Individual Labor Disputes in Japan, China, and the United States: Lessons from Asia?", ST. John's Law Review, No. 2, Vol. 86, pp. 564-567.
  8. 5. Colvin, A. J. S. (2011), "An Empirical Study of Employment Arbitration: Case Outcomes and Processes", Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, V 8, No. 1, pp. 1- 23.
  9. Estlund, Cynthia (2018),"The Black Hole of Mandatory Arbitration", North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 96, pp. 101-103.
  10. Frankel, Alison (2018),"When corporations silence employees via arbitration, shareholders lose", pp. 3-4.
  11. Frost, Peter & Others (2014),"Arbitration of employment disputes", Blackstone Chambers, ela Briefing, pp. 13-15.
  12. J.S. Colvin, Alexander (2018),"The growing use of mandatory arbitration; Access to the courts is now barred for more than 60 million American workers", Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 1-3.
  13. Jagtenberg, Rob & de Roo, Annie (2018), "Employment Disputes and Arbitration an Account of Irreconcilability, with Reference to the EU and the USA", Zbornik Pravnog Fakulteta u Zagrebu, Vol. 68, Issue 2, pp. 172-181.
  14. Lipsky, D. B. & Lamare, J. R.(2014), "Maffie, M., Mandatory Employment Arbitration; Dispelling the Myths", Alternatives (a CPR series), Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 133 – 146.
  15. M. Zack, Arnold (2002),"Using Mediation to Resolve Statutory Employment Disputes: More Justice at Lower Cost for more Workers", Paper presented at the 3rd African Regional Congress of the International Industrial Relations Association (IIRA) , Harvard Trade Union Program, USA, p. 5.
  16. Malhotra, O. P.(2003), "Arbitration of Labour Disputes; the Entire adjudicatory and ancillary machinery of the Industrial Disputes Act "(1947), pp. 35-36.
  17. 14. Ozdemdr, Burhan (2001),"Compulsory Arbitration and ILO Principles Concerning Labour Disputes", U. Đktisadi ve Đdari Bilimler Fakultesi Dergisi, Cilt 19, Sayı 1.
  18. Pivateau, Griffin Toronjo (2012), "Private Resolution of Public Disputes: Employment, Arbitration, and the Statutory Cause of Action", 32 PACE L. REV. 114, pp. 125-128.
  19. Stone, Katherine V.W., & Alexander J.S. Colvin (2015),"The Arbitration Epidemic", Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper no. 414, pp. 18-20.
  20. Giesbrecht-Mckee, Janna (2014),"The Fairness Problem: Mandatory Arbitration in Employment Contracts", Willamette Law Review, pp. 261-271.


  1. C) Documents
  2. ILO (1951), Recommendation No. 92; Voluntary Conciliation and Arbitration Recommendation.
  3. ILO (2019), Observation (CEACR)- adopted 2018, published 108th ILC session, on "Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention".