Document Type : Article


1 Professor in (International Law), Allemeh Tabatabaie University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in (International Law), University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. student in) International Law), North Branch, Azad Islamic University, Tehran, Iran



Arbitrators may face the allegation of corruption in the middle of international arbitration proceedings through the disputing parties. In the arbitral proceeding, the tribunal may confront the circumstantial evidence while examining documents, and proof can lead to corruption's strong suspicion. In such circumstances, most arbitrators are reluctant to enter into the matter of corruption. They prefer to settle disputes within the framework of the claims and submissions exchanged between the parties. However, taking an in-active position by arbitrators in such circumstances provides an excellent opportunity for abusers of arbitral procedure. Taking a de-active role can threaten the efficiency and reputation of arbitration. In such a condition, the tribunal's neutrality can also distort arbitration usage to the instrument legitimizing unlawful actions and contracts. The research question is whether the arbitrators dealing with corruption are obliged to consider the case and dispute within the framework of the arbitral agreement or not? Some arbitrators have taken the pro-activity approach against corruption. When tribunals and arbitrators have a strong belief in justice and accept their responsibility based on justice and equality, arbitration's misuses would be blocked against opportunists and abusers more than ever. In this research, arbitrators' active role's desirability is discussed based on the arbitral cases and awards.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Born, G. (2014). International Commercial Arbitration (Second Edition), Kluwer Law International.
    3. Kaj, H. (2011). International Commercial Arbitration in Sweden. Oxford University Press.
    4. Mujic, E. (2011). Master's Thesis in International Process Law, International Commercial Arbitration. Corruption in International Commercial Arbitration: The Right of the Arbitrator to Conduct Self-Initiated Investigation of Corruption’
    5. Persson, M. (2017). Master's Thesis in International Process Law, International Commercial Arbitration, ‘Enforcement of Annulled Arbitral Awards A Study on the Enforcement of Annulled Foreign Arbitral Awards under the 1958 New York Convention from a Swedish Perspective’, Uppsala University.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Baizeau. D & Hayes & Tessa Hayes, (2017). The Arbitral Tribunal’s Duty and Power to Address Corruption Sua Sponte. Kluwer Law International 225
    3. Bernard, H. (2014). The Law Applicable to Arbitrability. Singapore Academy of Law Journal, 26.
    4. Foustoucos, A. C. (1988). Conditions Required for the Validity of an Arbitration Agreement. J. Int'l Arb.5, 113.
    5. Gillis Wetter, J (1994). Issues of Corruption before International Arbitral Tribunals: The Authentic Text and True Meaning of Judge Gunnar Lagergren's 1963 Award in ICC Case No. 1110. Arbitration International, 10.
    6. Hobér, K. (2009). In Memoriam, Gunnar Lagergren. Arbitration International25(4), 633-634.
    7. Lamm B Carolyn, Greenwald, and Young M. Kristen, (2014). Article from World Duty-Free to Metal-Tech: A Review of International Investment Treaty Arbitration Cases Involving Allegations of Corruption. ICSID Review.
    8. Lew JDM, Mistelis LA, & Kröll S. (2003). Comparative International Commercial Arbitration. Kluwer Law International
    9. Majeed, N. B. (2000). Commentary on the Hubco Judgment. Arbitration International16(4), 431-438.
    10. Raouf, M. A. (2009). How Should International Arbitrators Tackle Corruption Issues?. Foreign Investment Law Journal, 24.



    1. C) Cases & Documents
    2. ICC Award No. 1110 of 1963
    3. ICC Case No. 6401 (1991), Westinghouse International Projects Company et al. v. National Power Corporation
    4. ICC Case No 7047. (1994), Westacre (UK) v Jugoimport (Yugoslavia). .
    5. Nations U, ‘UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985, With Amendments as Adopted in 2006


    1. D) Websites
    2. <> accessed 19 October 2019.
    3. <> accessed 31 March 2020.
    4. <> accessed 30 March 2020.
    5. <> accessed 2 April 2020
    6. < redirected From=fulltext> accessed 13 April 2020
    7. <> accessed 13 April 2020
    8. Wilmer hale Gary Born, ‘Bribery and an Arbitrator’s Task - Kluwer Arbitration Blog’ (Kluwer Arbitration Blog, 1 November 2011) <http://arbitrationblog.> accessed 3 May 2020.



    References In Persian:

    - Articles

    1. Ghasemi, G. A. (2016). Preventive Measures against Economic Corruption in the Light of the Anti-Corruption Convention and Regulations of Iran. Comparative Law, 106 (In Persian).
    2. Mirfakhraei, M. J. (1991). Arbitrators' Civil Liability, A Comparative Study with Correctional Suggestions. Legal Journal of the International Presidential Law Center, 10(14 & 15) (In Persian).
    3. Nouri Yoshanloui, J., & Shah Moradi, E. (2017). Legal Effects of Corruption on Oil and Gas Contracts. Energy Law Studies, 5 (In Persian).
    4. Taghipour, B., Abbasi, M., Mahdavipour, A., & Ebrahimi, M. T. (2019). Legal-Ethical Strategies to Combat Corruption in Concluding International Trade Agreements. Ethical Research, 10(1) (In Persian).