Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Administrative Science and Economics, ‎University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Instructor, Faculty of Law, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran


Mankind's effort to not extend the scope of militarism to outer space on one hand and the fear of great powers from the superiority of competitors in space activities on the other hand caused the necessity of peaceful use of space to be repeated in almost all existing instruments about the activities of states in outer space, which has turned this necessity into a binding rule.  The necessity of using this principle in media communication is even greater due to the numerous examples of using the media to promote war and the like. In addition, the use of media is closely related to human rights and states sovereignty. The question is whether the principle of peaceful use of space in media communication is valid and enforceable. The hypothesis that we seek to prove is the principle of the necessity of peaceful use of space in media communication to play the role of a filter in not turning the media into a means of harming the rights of individuals or the sovereignty of states.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. D’Alema, M. (2016). Daesh and the Terrorist Threat: From Middle East to Europe. Brussels, FEPS-foundation for European progressive studies.
    3. Hobe, S. (2004). Current and Future Development of International Space Law. United Nations/Brasil Workshop on Space Law, Vienna, United Nations Publications.
    4. Roscini, M. (2014). Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    5. Schechter, Oscar and Christopher Joyner (1988). United Nations Legal Order. New York, United Nations Publications.
    6. Tyson, R. (2007). Advancing a Cooperative Security Regime in Outer Space. New York, Global Security Institute.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Dembling, P. (1970). A Liability Treaty for Outer Space Activities. The American University Law Review, 19.
    3. Galloway, E. (2004). Maintaining International Space Cooperation for Peaceful Uses. Journal of Space Law, 30.
    4. Gorove, S. (1973). Earth Resources Survey Satellites and the Outer Space Treaty. Journal of Space Law, 1:1.
    5. Kalteneckeer, H. (1973). European Understandings in the Application Satellites Field and Their Legal Implications. Journal of Space Law, vol. 1:2.
    6. Petras, C. (2005). Eyes On Freedom- A View Of The Law Governing Military Use Of Satellite Reconnaissance In U.S. Homeland Defense. Journal of Space Law, 31.
    7. Stowe, R. (1983). The Legal and Political Considerations of The 1985 Worl Administrative Radio Conference. Journal of Space Law, 11.
    8. Tate, L. (2006). The Status of the Outer Space Treaty at International Law during War and Those Measures Short of War. Journal of Space Law, 32.
    9. Tomuschat, C. (2010). article 2(4), in: The Charter of the United Nations, A Commentary, BronoSimma, et al (ed), 3rd Ed, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press.


    1. C) Documents
    2. Conference on disarmament, report of the ad hoc committee on the prevention of an arms race in outer space, 1992, un doc.
    3. Declaration of principles of international law concerning friendly relations and co-operation among states in accordance with the charter of United Nations. Res. 2625(33/73)
    4. General comment No. 11: prohibition of propaganda for war and inciting national, racial or religious hatred (Art 20): 29/07/1983.UN doc.
    5. General comment No. 34: freedoms of opinion and expression, 29 July 2011, UN doc.
    6. Resolution 12 (WRC-12), assistance and support to Palestine, 2012, the world radiocommunication conference, Geneva, the international telecommunication union library and archive.
    7. The use of satellite communication for education and economic development: report of the director-general on the feasibility of the pilot project and on possible international arrangements, 20 November 1968.


    1. D) Websites


    References In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Halpin, E. (2010). Cyberwar, Netwar and the Revolution in Military Affairs. Translated by Ruhollah Talebi, Tehran: Majlis (In Persian).
    3. Maghami, A. (2013). A Lecture on International Law of Communications. Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani University, Available at: (In Persian).
    4. Navade Toupchi, H. (2011). International Space Law. Tehran: Khorsandi (In Persian).
    5. Purnouri, M., & Habibi, M. (2007). International Law of the Sea. Theran: Mahde Hoghoogh (In Persian).
    6. Ray, P., & Sanders, J. (2007). Media Law. Translated by Hamidreza Malek Mohammadi, Tehran: Mizan (In Persian).
    7. Zamani, S. G. (2002). Satelites Live Broadcasting in 21st Century. Tehran: Soroush (In Persian).
    8. Ziaee Bigdeli, M. R. (2002). Public International Law. Tehran: Ganje Danesh (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Aminzade, E., & Alagheband, Y. (2016). Norm-making evolution in the international law of space: The 1992 principles relevant to the use of nuclear power sources in outer space. Public Law Studies, 46(1), 161-177 (In Persian).
    3. Bordbar, M. H. (2001). Legal Principles Governing on Satellites. Journal of Bar Association, 176, 149-162 (In Persian).
    4. Heidari, H., & Aminzade, E. (2012). Legal Review of Countermeasures in the Field of Broadcasting Unauthorized Satellite Programs. Legal Thoughts, 1(3), 18-58 (In Persian).
    5. Hosseini, E. (2000). Satellite Programs and the Principles of States Sovereignty and Freedom of Information. Marefat, 36, 52-68 (In Persian).
    6. Motamednejad, K. (1996). Theories of Global Communication Dominance. Rasane, 7(2), 2-9 (In Persian).
    7. Shaygan, F. (2016). Application of the law of neutrality in cyberspace. Public Law Studies, 46(2), 337-357 (In Persian).