Document Type : Article


1 Associate Professor., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran (Alborz campus), Tehran, Iran


With the spread of irreparable crimes, severe, persistent and widespread environmental crimes and the effects that have endangered the very foundations of human life, international law must use its capacity to address the spread of crimes caused by pollution and environmental degradation. Human health, other living organisms, and international peace and security are threatened. Prohibition of interference in their territory is also one of the basic principles of international law, but the principle of sovereignty in international environmental law is not absolute and is conditional on the non-harmful use of land. In international environmental law, there are capabilities to exercise the universal jurisdiction of states against environmental crimes, the most important of which are environmental customs and obligations and the performance of relevant international institutions and organizations in applying customary and treaty principles. And international organizations have been clarified in this regard.


Main Subjects

  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Sollund, R., Stefes, C. H., & Germani, A. R. (Eds.). (2016). Fighting environmental crime in Europe and beyond: The role of the EU and its member states. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.


    1. B) Articls
    2. Aoife, N. (2021). Children’s Rights and Clhmate Change at the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Pragmatism and Principle in Sacchi v Argentina, Available at: www.
    3. Anton, D., & Shelton, D. L. (2011). Problems in environmental protection and human rights: A human right to the environment. ANU College of Law Research Paper, 11-17.
    4. Boyd, D. R., & Keene, S. (2021). Policy Brief No. 1 Human rights-based approaches to conserving biodiversity: equitable, effective and imperative
    5. Bodansky, D.(2017). The role of the international court of justice in addressing climate change: Some preliminary reflections. Ariz. St. LJ 49.
    6. Baranwal, S. (2013). Criminal Liability for Environmental Crimes. Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, 11, 574-592.
    7. Christina Voigt (2008). State Responsibility for Climate Change Damages. Nordic Journal of International Law, 77, 1–22.
    8. Clark, P., Liston, G., & Kalpouzos, I. (2020). Climate change and the European Court of Human Rights: The Portuguese Youth Case. Dostupno na: https://www. ejiltalk. org/climate-change-and-the-european-court-of-human-rights-the-portuguese-youth-case/, (4. 2. 2021).
    9. Donna, M. (2021). The Proposed Definition of Crime of Ecocide: AnImportant Step Forward, but Can Our Planet Wait?. Available at: www.
    10. Greene, A.. (2018). "The campaign to make ecocide an international crime: quixotic quest or moral imperative". Fordham Envtl. L. Rev.30, 1.
    11. GiovannyVega-Barbosa,LorraineAboagye, (2018),’ human rights and the protection of the Environment: the Advisory Opinion of the inter-American Court of Human rights’Available at:www.
    12. Giulia D’Amico (2021). tackling corruption as an enabler for environmental crime’ Available at:
    13. Juan A. (2018). Why is the Inter-American Human Rights System Lagging on Climate Change?. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED: January 11, 2018, Available at:
    14. Keller, H., & Heri, C. (2022). The Future is Now: Climate Cases Before the ECtHR. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 1-22.
    15. Lornzo, C., & Bianchi, M. (2016). Fighting Einvironmental Crime in Europe, Preliminary Report, Istituto Affari Internazinall.
    16. Savaresi, A. (2021). The UN HRC recognizes the right to a healthy environment and appoints a new Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and Climate Change’ Available at: www.


    1. B) Documents
    2. Draft article on state responsibility with commentaries thereto adopted by the international law commission,1996, part1, chapterIII, Article 19.
    3. UNHCR.2008, Climate Change, Natural Disasters and human displacement perepective, Available
    4. December 2021 – Financial Action Task Force (FATF) President Dr. Marcus Pleyer calls for a global push to take the illicit profits out of environmental crimes
    7. UN, Convention on the Rights of the Child unedited version, CRC/C/88/D/104/2019
    8. Dispute over the Status and Use of the Waters of the Silala (Chile v. Bolivia) Summary of the Judgment of 1 December 2022, Summary 2022/5 1 December 2022, p.28-38


    References In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Ziaei Bigdeli, M. (2019). General International Law. Tehran: Ganj Danesh, 62(in Persian (In Persian).
    3. Rebecca Wallace, Olga Martin Ortega (2017). International Law. translated by Seyed Ghasem Zamani, Shahr Danesh, 6th edition (In Persian).
    4. Mosazadeh, R. (2018). International Organizations, Publication of Mizan, 27th edition (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Ahmadnejad.Massoud, Ashkan.Afshang, (2018). The role of the Security Council in opposition with climate change as a threat to international peace and security. International Conference on Society and Environment, 2September 2018, University of Thran (In Persian).
    3. Kazemi Akhavan, M., & Hosseini, T. S., & Bahrampour, F. (2019). Study and Analysis of the Impact of Climate Change on International Security.Quarterly Journal of International Relations Studies, 46, 9-39, DOR:20.1001.1.24234974.1398. (In Persian).
    4. Mirabbasi, M. B., & Rezaei, M. R. (2019). International Responsibility of Governments Due to Environmental Destruction in International Armed Conflicts. Journal of Comparative Law Research, 23, 157-135, (In Persian).
    5. Pourhashemi, S.A., Taybi, S., & Naderi, S. (2014). International litigation and liability; a tool to deal with non-compliance with climate change commitments. Human and Environment Quarterly, 31, 86-76, 802b43e44aa (In Persian).
    6. Momenirad, A., Amirkhani, A., & Timuri, Z. (2016). Protection of Human Environmental Rights in Oil Contracts. Islamic Human Rights Studies Quarterly, 5(11), 113-130, (In Persian).