Document Type : Article


1 Associate Professor of International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

2 M.A in international law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran


Humans created plastic in order to make their lives more convienient, however its indiscriminate consumption has turned into a menace to themselves. Simultaneous release of environment images drowned in plastic and trapped organisms, the entry of plastic into the food-chain and the detrimental effects on tourism and the economy with the rise of environmental movements; the effects of consideration to plastic and its prevention have been reflected in conventions such as MARPOL, London, Basel and more comprehensively in EU documents. Regardless of the significance of these documents inaddressing the issue of plastics, by valuing the models provided for drafting an agreement on the particular matter of plastics and accepting structural and normative flaws,it should not be forgotten that the international environmental law principles and custom in this field have simply responded to the requirement to limit and ban the production and consumption of plastic and its entry into the environment and countries have confirmed these preventions in their policies and national laws. The role of raising public awareness in plastic replacement with education and the impact of the media, the activities of NGOs to introduce replacements and encouraging legal foundations to make obligatory regulations along the path of environmental liberation from plastic is undeniable.


Main Subjects

  1. English

    1. A) Book
    2. Dumbili, E., Henderson, L. (2020).  The challenge of plastic pollution in Nigeria. Letcher Trevor M., Plastic Waste and Recycling: Environmental Impact, Societal Issues, Prevention and Solutions . London, Elsevier


    1. B) Articles
    2. Halden, U.R. & North, J.E. (2013). Plastics And Environmental Health: The Road Reviews on Environmental Health . 28(1).
    3. Jirí Jaromír Klemes, P. J., Raymond, T., Yee Van Fan (2020). Minimising The Present And Future Plastic Waste, Energy And Environmental Footprints Related To Covid-19. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
    4. Kariuki Njuguna, J. (2018). The Efficacy Of The Ban On Use Of Plastic Bags In Kenya. Journal of CMSD, 2.
    5. Ludwig Kräme. (2020). Come On, Let’s Make A Plan_Towards An Eu environmental Action Programme. ERA Forum, 20.
    6. Md Yusuf Mazila, Rohana Kamaruddin. (2012). Selangor government’s No plastic bag day Campaign:Motivation And Acceptance Level. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 42. Available on
    7. Ramsay, J. (2007). Consulting Environmental Protection And Heritage Council review of the NEPC Act was undertaken. annual report .available on



    1. C) Documents
    2. Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament,The Council,The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions AEuropean Strategy For Plastics In A Circular Economy Swd(2018)
    3. DIRECTIVE (EU) 2019/904 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment (2019)
    4. Eu Action Plan For The Circular Economy, (Com2015). Final Report From The Commission To The European Parliament,The Council,The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions On The Implementation Of The Circular Economy Action Plan.(2017,May)
    5. Report From The Commission To The European Parliament,The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions On The Implementation Of The Circular Economy Action Plan Swd(2019,Jun)


    1. D) Website
    2. visited 22 Jul.2020
    3. visited 25 June.2020
    4. Last visited 31March.2020
    5. .Last visited 12 Aug.2020
    6. Last visited 8April.2020
    7. Last visited 12 Aug.2020
    8. Toward An International Legally Binding Agreement On Plastics And Plastic Pollution Last visited 11May.2020
    9. Last visited 29May.2020
    10. Last visited 17June2020
    11. Last visited 17June2020
    12. org/asias-battle-against-plastic-waste Last visited 25 June.2020
    13. visited 11Oct.2020
    14. Last visited 12Des.2020
    15. Last visited 12Des.2020
    16. Globalcitizen.Org/En/Content/Plastic-Bans-Around-The-World/
    17. Last visited 14Mar.2021
    18. Last visited 14Mar.2021
    19. Last visited 1May.2021
    20. Last visited 4May.2021
    21. Last visited 23Apr.2021
    22. Last visited 23Apr.2021
    23. Top 10 Countries Doing The Most To Tackle Plastic Pollution. Last visited 23 apr 2021


    References in Persian:

    1. A) Book
    2. Porhashemi, S. A. & Arghand, B. (2012). International environmental law. First edition, Tehran: Dadgostar (In Persian).
    3. Samii, A., Mohsenzadeh, A. A., & Nader, S. (2007). Environmental law, theories and procedures (collection of articles). First edition, Tehran: Khorsandi (In Persian).


    1. B) Article
    2. Arashpour, A., & Mousavi, S.f. (2014). The position of the precautionary principle in international environmental law. Quarterly Journal of Public Law Studies, 45(2) (In Persian).
    3. Batani, F., & Yazdanian, A. (2015). Civil liability arising from the transportation of hazardous waste in the Basel Convention of 1989 and the additional protocol of 1999. Legal studies; (1) 8 (In Persian).
    4. Parandeh-Mutalaq, A., Pourhashmi, S. A. (2016). Methods of dealing with scientific uncertainty in the principle of ecology from the perspective of international environmental law. Environmental science and technology, 19(2) (In Persian).
    5. Porashmi, A., Taibi, S., & Naderi, S. (2013). Litigation and international responsibility; a tool to deal with non-fulfillment of obligations regarding climate change. Man and Environment Quarterly, 31 (In Persian).
    6. Porhashmi, A., Zarei, S., & Khalatbari, Y. (2012). The principle of cooperation in international environmental law. Public Law Research Quarterly, 15(39) (In Persian).
    7. Porhashmi, A., Khalatbari, Y., Zare, A., & Harmidas-Bavand, D. (2015). Analysis of the concepts of pollution and damage in international environmental law. Environmental Science and Technology Quarterly 1-17 (In Persian).
    8. Piri-Damagh, M., & Razm-pa, S. (2018). Utilization of unconventional oil and gas resources in the Persian Gulf in the light of the requirements of the Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Regional Convention of Kuwait. Energy Law Studies Quarterly, 5(2) (In Persian).
    9. Ramezani Qawamabadi, M. H. (2006). A look at the principle of non-harmful (sustainable) use of land in international environmental law. environmental sciences, 4 (In Persian).
    10. Ramezani Qawamabadi, M. H., & Shafiq Fard, H. (2015). Sustainable development and the right to a healthy environment: the perspective of future generations. World Politics. Quarterly, 5(1) (In Persian).
    11. Salari, A., & Kodkhodaei, A. A.(2016). Caution; The customary principle in the European Union.Tehran University Public Law Studies Quarterly, 47(3) (In Persian).
    12. Sarbuloki, M., & Mohammadi Roshandeh, J. (2012). The use of polymers in medicine and therapy. Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 22(1) (In Persian).
    13. Sheikhi, M., Farughinia, H., & Valipour, M.(2016). Legal requirements under environmental rules in oil contracts. Scientific-legal quarterly of Qanon Yar. 2(2) (In Persian).
    14. Abdulahi, M., & Marafi, S. (2009). The principle of common but different responsibility in international environmental law. Law Research Quarterly, 29 (In Persian).
    15. Alizadeh, M., Yousefzadeh, S. M., & Bagheri, F. (2018). The environmental responsibility system in the European Union with emphasis on the 2004 guidelines. Tehran University Public Law Studies Quarterly, 49(3) (In Persian).