Document Type : Article


1 Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in Public Law, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The growing use of cyberspace has been the source of new challenges in how to organize and regulate people's relationships in cyberspace. There are two different approaches in this regard. The first approach seeks to create a new legal system for cyberspace by emphasizing the characteristics of cyberspace and the other one considers it possible to regulate this space with the existing legal by focusing on the capacities of the legal system and the tools of cyberspace, systems. Adopting any of these approaches in the field of implementation is confronted with challenges; Therefore, this paper using a descriptive-analytical method and library resources concludes that by adopting the middle approach, which eliminates the shortcomings of each approach, the preparations for organizing cyberspace can be provided in a more appropriate way.


Main Subjects

  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Goldsmith, J., & Wu, T. (2006). Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. Oxford University Press.
    3. Leenes, R. E., Koops, Bert-Jaap, De Hert, P. (Eds.) (2008). Constitutional Rights and New Technologie:. A Comparative Study. The Hague, Asser Press.
    4. Lessig, L. (2006). Code: Version 2.0, New York, Basic Books.
    5. Machill, M., & Waltermann, J. (1999). Self-regulation of Internet content, Gütersloh, Bertelsmann Foundation.
    6. Naughton, J. (2000). A Brief History of the Future: the origins of the Internet, Phoenix.
    7. Nicholas, Tsagourias (ed.); Russell Buchan (ed.) (2015). Research Handbook on International Law and Cyberspace, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Odello, M., & Cavandoli, S. (eds.), (2014). Emerging areas of human rights in the 21st century: the role of the universal declaration of human rights. London, Routledge.
    9. Orianne, P. (1983). Introduction au système juridique. Bruxelles, Bruylant; Louvain-la-Neuve: Université catholique de Louvain.
    10. Price, M., & Stefaan, V. (2005). Self-Regulation and the Internet. Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International.



    1. B) Articles:
    2. Akehurst, M. (1973). Jurisdiction in International Law. British Year Book of International Law, 46, 145-258
    3. Clough, J. (2014). A World of Difference: The Budapest Convention of Cybercrime and the Challenges of Harmonisation. Monash University Law Review, 40, 698-736.
    4. De Hert, P.J.A, Kloza, D. (2012). Internet (access) as a new fundamental right. Inflating the current rights framework?. European Journal of Law and Technology, 3. Available at
    5. First, P. F., Hart, Y. Y (2002). Access to cyberspace: The new issue in educational justice. Journal of Law & Education, 31, 385-411.
    6. Gitter, H. (1993). Self-Help Remedies for Software Vendors. Santa Clara Computer and High Technology Law Journal, 9, 413-429.
    7. Goldsmith, J. (1998). Against Cyberanarchy. University of Chicago Law Occasional Paper, 65, 1198-1250.
    8. Hardy, T. (1994). The Proper Legal Regime for Cyberspace. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 55, 1993-1055.
    9. Johnson, David & Post, D. (1996). Law and borders: The Rise of Law in Cyberspace. Stanford Law Review, 48, 1367-1402.
    10. Kuner, C. (2009). An international legal framework for data protection: Issues and prospects.Computer Law & Security Review, 25, 307-317.
    11. Pasquale, F., & Cockfield, A. (2018). Beyond Instrumentalism: A Substantivist Perspective on Law, Technology, and the Digital Persona. Michigan State Law Review. 821-868.
    12. Skepys, B. (2012). Is There a Human Right to the Internet?. Journal of Politics and Law, 5, 15-29.
    13. Westen, P. (2018). Poor Wesley Hohfeld. San Diego Law Review, 55, 537-596.


    1. C) Documents
    2. Convention on Cybercrime, Budapest, 23 November 2001.
    3. DIRECTIVE 95/46/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.
    4. REGULATION (EU) 2016/679 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing -Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).


    1. D) Case
    2. Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay), ICJ Reports, 2010.
    3. Dispute Regarding Navigational and Related Rights (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), ICJ Reports, 2009.
    4. Jankovskis v. Lithuania (Application no. 21575/08), European Human Rights Reports, 2008.
    5. Tyrer v. The United Kingdom (Application No. 5856/72), European Human Rights Reports, 1978.


    1. E) Internet
    2. accessed 30 Dec 2020.



    References In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Aghighi, N. (2017). Jurisdiction in cyberspace from the perspective of international law, Tehran: Share-Danesh Pub (In Persian).
    3. Alipour, H. (2016). Information Technology Criminal Law, Tehran, Khorsandy Pub (In Persian).
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    1. B) Article
    2. Alipour, H., & Yekrangi, M. (2019). The Rule of Constitutional Law in Dealing with Cybercrime. Legal Journal of Justice, 102, 81-108 (In Persian).
    3. Ansari, B. (2021). Internet Access Rights: Basics and Content. Legal Journal of Justice, 112, 51-80 (In Persian).
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    6. Golding, Martin P (2019) "The concept of Rights: A Historical Sketch" In Mohammad Rasekh, Right and Expediency: Articles in Philosophy of law, Philosophy of Right and Philosophy of Value, Tehran, Nashr e Ney, pp. 179-195 (In Persian).
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    11. Tafazolli, F. (2006). The capitalist system from the point of view of Karl Marx and Max Weber. Jounal of Peyk e Nour, 4. 79-92 (In Persian).
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    1. C) Reports
    2. Report of the Islamic Consultative Assembly: Plan to Merge the High Council of Information Technology in the High Council of Cyberspace and Delete Article (4) of the Law on Duties and Powers of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology", (October 14, 2014) (In Persian).