Document Type : Article


Assistant Prof. Member of the academic staff of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Ph.D in public law at Shahid Beheshti University. Tehran, Iran


Robert Nozick is one of the prominent theorists of the late 20th century in the field of political philosophy, who became famous by writing the book Anarchy, State and Utopia. In this book, with an anarchist basis and relying on some of the foundations of John Locke's thought, he drew the theory of "minimum state" and by explaining the process of transformation from "state of nature" to "civil society" in his special reading, he ultimately created a utopian image of the minimum state. Offers. The main question of this research is that the formation and development of the Minimal State theory in Robert Nozick's thought is based on what foundations and foundations and what are the characteristics of this state? In contrast to the theory of distributive justice, Nozick insisted on the theory of entitlement justice and proved with this basis that the implementation of this theory does not require a wider state and in this way challenged all other theories such as Rawls' opinion that sought to justify the bureaucratic welfare state. This article tries to criticize the opinions of Robert Nozick by using the descriptive-analytical method and by using library sources and also by pondering the basics of the state theory of Robert Nozick, while presenting an image of the thought of the Minimal State.


Main Subjects

  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Feser, E. (2003). On Nozick. Belmont. Calif.: Wadsworth.
    3. P. (1945). The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine. Vol.1, New York: Citadel Press.
    4. Lacey, R. (2014). Robert Nozick. New York: Rutledge
    5. Lomasky, L. (2002). Nozick's Libertarian Utopia. in Schmidtz.
    6. Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.
    7. Tomasi, J. (2012) Free Market Fairness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
      University Press.


    1. B) Articles
    2. R. E. (1977). Whither Anarchy? Has Robert Nozick Justified the State?. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1 (Winter), 15-22.
    3. Roy A. Jr. (1977). The Invisible Hand Strikes Back. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1 (Winter), 23-33.
    4. Davidson, J. D. (1977). Note on Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1, (4) (Fall), 341–348.
    5. Feser, E. (2004). self-ownership, abortion, and the rights of children: toward a more conservative libertarianism. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 18(3) (Summer), 91–114.
    6. Long, R. (2010). Robert Nozick, Philosopher of Liberty. Ideas on Liberty. 52.9 (September): 30-33. Available online at: freeman/long0902. pdf
    7. Mack, E. (2014). Robert Nozick's Political Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. First published Sun Jun 22, 2014, Available online at: http://www.
    8. MacIntyre, A. (1978). How to Identify Ethical Principles. In The
      Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of
      Human Subjects of Research
      I, Washington: DHEW pub. no. (OS) 78-
    9. Paul, J. (1977). Nozick, Anarchism and Procedural Rights. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1, (4) (Fall), 337-340.
    10. Rothbard, M. N. (1977). Robert Nozick and the Immaculate Conception of the State. Journal of Libertarian Studies, (1) (Winter), 45-57.
    11. Sanders, J. T. (1977). The Free Market Model Versus Government: A Reply to Nozick. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1 (Winter), 35-44.
    12. Scanlon, T. (1976). Nozick on Rights, Liberty, and Property.
      Philosophy and Public Affairs, 6(1) (Autumn, 1976), 3-25.


    1. References In Persian:
    2. A) books

    1- Bashiriyeh, H. (2000). Political thoughts in the 20th century. Tehran: Samt publications (In Persian).

    1. Bashiriyeh, H. (1995). The State of reason (ten discourses in philosophy and political sociology). Tehran: New Science Publishing House (In Persian).
    2. Bashiriyeh, H. (1999). State and Civil Society: Discourses of Political Sociology. Qom: Naqd and Nazar Publications (In Persian).
    3. Tohidfam, M. (2002). State and democracy in the age of globalization. Tehran, Rozaneh Publications (In Persian).
    4. Jane, H. (2001). Political philosophy. Translated by Khashayar Deyhimi, Tehran: Tarhe-no Publications (In Persian).
    5. Rawls, J. (2004). Justice as fairness. Translated by Erfan Sabeti, Tehran: Qoqnoos Publications (In Persian).
    6. Qadri, H. (2008). Political thoughts in the 20th century. Tehran: Samt Publications (In Persian).
    7. Clark, B. (2015). Comparative political economy. Translated by Abbas Hatami, Tehran: Kavir Publications, second edition (In Persian).
    8. Lansoff, M. H. (2001). Political philosophers of the 20th century. Translated by Khashayar Deyhimi, Tehran: Kochak Publications (In Persian).
    9. Marsh, D. (2008). Method and theory in political thought. Translated by Amir Mohammad Haji Yousefi, Tehran, Strategic Studies Research Institute (In Persian).
    10. Magee, B. (1998). Great Philosophers: Introduction to Western Philosophy. Translated by Ezzatollah Fouladvand, Tehran, Kharazmi Publications, second edition (In Persian).
    11. Nozick, R.; Sen, A.; & Walzer, M. (2015). Liberalism and the problem of justice. Translated by Mohammad Mollaabasi, Tehran: Humanities Interpreter Publishing House, first edition (In Persian).
    12. Held, D. (2004). Models of democracy. Translated by Abbas Mokhber, Tehran: Women's Studies Publishing House (In Persian).
    13. Hampton, J. (2001). Political philosophy. Translated by Khashayar Deihimi, Tehran: Tarhe No Publications (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. Amiri-Tahrani, Se. M. R. (2021). Adaptation of the theory of justice from Sadr's and Nozick's point of view. Fundamental Western Studies bi-quarterly, 12(1), 19-41 (In Persian).
    3. Plant, R. (1383). Nozik; The Theory of Entitlement in the Matter of Justice. translated by Hasan Ali Zidanlou, specialized journal of the Razavi Faculty of Islamic Sciences (teachings of Islamic philosophy), 4(4), (12 in a row), summer, 143-160 (In Persian).
    4. Johnson, R. N. (2010). A Review of Robert Nozick's Opinions. Translated by: Majid Bibak, Donyaye Eghtesad newspaper. No. 2216, dated 1/11/2010 (In Persian).
    5. Jafari-Tabar, H. (2007). Meaning ownership along with speech in the philosophy of intellectual property rights. Law Quarterly, 37(2), 41-82 (In Persian).
    6. Dadgar, Y., & Arman Mehr, M. R. (2009). Investigation and criticism of the foundations of Rawls' economic justice. Research Journal of Economic Sciences, 9(2) (series 35), 37-60 (In Persian).
    7. Zali, M. (2021). Hidden hand or social contract: Nozick, Rawls and the problem of distributive justice. Cognition Philosophical Journal, No. 1/84, 111-130 (In Persian).
    8. Farzaneh, H. (2003). Virtues of Nocturnal Government. Hamshahri, (2263), 13 September (In Persian).
    9. Lotfi, H. (2018). The basis of government intervention in contracts: corrective or distributive justice?. Public Law Studies Quarterly, (3), 547-567. (in Persian)
    10. McPherson, C. P. (2006). John Locke and a Treatise on Government. translated by Hamid Azdanlou, Political-Economic Information Quarterly. (234), 102-113 (In Persian).
    11. Nourizadeh, A., & Shaqool, Y. (2014). Examination of the criticisms of Michael Sandel and Robert Nozick on the incompatibility of the principle of difference and individualism in the theory of John Rawls. Research Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 5th year, 1st issue, spring and summer, 133-160 (In Persian).
    12. Hermann Hope, H. (2012). Murray Rothbard: Economy, Science, Freedom. translated by Mohsen Ranjbar, Donyaye Eghtesad newspaper, (2572), 28/1/2012 (In Persian).
    13. Yankins, E. (2014). Robert Nozick's Libertarian Structure for Utopia. translated by Morteza Afshari, New Philosophy