Document Type : Article


1 Associate Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran


Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, a German philosopher, shortly after the victory of the French Revolution and the ratification of a modern and written constitution and the realization of the constitutional idea of the Enlightenment period, seeing the unfavorable results of this revolution and the events that followed, he began to critically rethink the idea of constitutionalism and the constitution. In Hegel's opinion, it is not possible to change a society and be guided to the intended goals of that law only through a rationally and theoretically desirable and ideal constitution. In order to correct this positivist and formalistic view of the constitution, under the concept of Ethical life in his philosophical system, he emphasizes the constitution in a broader concept (which is called the organic constitution in this article) that The following article seeks to understand what this constitution is and its results in some concepts and methods of constitutional law studies. The organic constitution includes all institutions, processes and political, social, cultural and economic values of the society. The written constitution must be in harmony with this moral system and the organic constitution, and be amended according to the change and evolution of the nation's spirit, which is the Ethical system. As a result, studies of constitutional law should also include a scope beyond the mere legal study of the text of the constitution.


Main Subjects

  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Arato, A. (1991). A Reconstruction of Hegel's Theory of Civil Society. In: Hegel and legal theory. edited by Drucilla Cornell & others, NewYork: Routledge, 301-320.
    3. Brod, H. (1992). Hegel's Philosophy of Politics, Idealism, Identity and Modernity, United States: Westview Press.
    4. Conklin, (2008). Hegel's Laws: The Legitimacy of a Modern Legal Order. California: Stanford University Press.
    5. Siep, L. (2017). "Hegel’s Liberal, Social, and ‘Ethical’ State", in: The Oxford Handbook of Hegel. edited by Dean Moyar, London: Oxford University Press.
    6. Stillman, P. (1988). "Hegel’s Idea of Constitutionalism", in: Constitutionalism: The Philosophical Dimension. edited by Allen Rosenbaum, New York: Greenwood Press, 88-112.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Boyd, N. (2021). Tyranny and Ethical Life in Hegel’s Political Thought: the Tyrant-Legislator and Constituent Power. Ethics & Politics, (23), 145-162.
    3. Germino, D. (1969). Hegel as a Political Theorist. Journal of Politics, 31 (4), 885-912.
    4. Gledhill, J. (2013). Constructivism and Reflexive Constitution-Making Practices. Raisons politiques, (51), 63-80.
    5. Hart, H. (1958). Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals. Harvard Law Review, 71 (4), 593-629.
    6. Lambier, J. (2008). The organismic state against itself: Schelling, Hegel and the life of right. European Romantic Review, 19, 131-137.
    7. Ritchie, D. (2005). Organic Constitutionalism: Rousseau, Hegel and the Constitution of Society. Journal of Law and Society, 6 )36(, 1-27.
    8. Salter, M., & Shaw, J. (1994). Towards a Critical Theory of Constitutional Law: Hegel's Contribution. Journal of Law and Society, 21 (4), 464-486.
    9. Znoj, M. (2017). Political Will and Public Opinion: On Hegel’s Theory of Representation. Filosofický časopis (Philosophical Journal), (65), 17-40.


    1. C) Theses:
    2. Kayser, C. (1995). Law, Politics, and Morality: Dworkin's Jurisprudence in a Hegelian Perspective. Dissertations. 3496, Chicago: Loyola University.


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