Assistant Professor of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran


Following the developments in recent decades in the Middle East, many tragic events have unfolded in this region. From the imposed war of Iraq's dictator, Saddam Hussein, against Iran in the 1980s, Kuwait's occupation by Ba'athist Iraq, acts of aggression by Israel's regime against Lebanon, Gaza along with other incidents, Military intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq by the United States and its allies, brutal and criminal acts of violence committed by terrorist groups in Iraq and Syria with the support of  regional and trans-regional powers, to the most recent military intervention and acts of war against the people of Yemen. Not only have these events been in violation of fundamental rules and principles of the International law, but they have also endangered the current international order. Unfortunately, the international practice especially responses by a number of States and international organizations have not been as expected. This essay reviews the facts and issues regarding the military intervention in Yemen according to the rules and principles of International Law and International Customary Law, to prove it as an unjustified and illegitimate act.


فارسی و عربی
-ابوطالب، حسن، الحوثیون ماقبل الاخیر فی یمن، مرکز الاهرام للدراسات الاستراتیجیه، 9 جولای 2008.
-جمال الدین، محمد قیس، «التعددیة الحزبیة فی الیمن و اثرها فی تطور الحیاة السیاسیة»، المجلة السیاسیة و الدولیة، کلیة العلوم السیاسیة، جامعة النهرین، 2007.
-فلسفی،هدایةالله،حقوق بین‌الملل معاهدات، ویراست سوم، نشر نو، تهران، 1391.
-قنبری، حمید، «شورای امنیت و ابهامات دعوت به مداخله در یمن»، دنیای اقتصاد، ش 3464، تاریخ انتشار 2/2/1394، تاریخ رویت در سایت مجله 17/6/1394.
-الکلاس، فائزه، «الحملة الایوبیة الاولی علی الیمن (بقیادة شمس الدولة فخرالدین تورانشاه،569 ه/1174م.)»، قسم التاریخ جامعة دمشق، مجلة دراسات تاریخیة، العددان 118-117، کانون الثانی-حزیران العام 2012.
-هانی‌زاده،حسن، «یمن در گذر زمان»، 1393، 3،قابل دسترسی در:
-هانی‌زاده،حسن، کودتاهای نظامی متوالی و دخالت‌های ویرانگر عربستان، 1393، قابل دسترسی در:
-هویدی، فهمی، «کشف المستور فی الیمن»، الشرق، 8 فوریه 2015، قطر، ش 108998. رویت‌شده در تاریخ 10مهرماه 1394 در:
-والر، مارک،حمله به داعش، جنبه‌های حقوقی استفاده از زور، ترجمۀ فائقه دلاوری، رویت‌شده در تاریخ 10/6/1394، در:
-Agora, Special, "Implications of The Iraq Conflict", American Journal of International Law, 97, no.3 (2003).
-Both, M., "Terrorism and the Legality of Preemptive Force", 14 EJIL (2003)
-Brownlie, I., 1963, International Law and the Use of Force by States, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-Carapice, S., 1998, Civil Society in Yemen : The Political Economy of Activism in Modern Arabia, London, Cambridge University Press.
-Connell, O., 2002, The Myth of Preemptive Self defense, Paper Prepared for the American International Law Task Force on Terrorism.
-Day Stephen, "Updating Yemeni National Unity: Could Lingering Regional Divisions Bring Down the Regime?", Middle East Journal 63:3, Summer 2008.
-Dinstein, 2001, War, Aggression and Self- defense , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3rd edition .
-Dresch, Paul, 2001, A History of Modern Yemen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Etheredge, S., 2011, Middle East Region in Transition, -
-Gray, 2008, International Law and the Use of Force (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3rd edition.
-Greenwood, "International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force: Afghanistan, Al-Qaida and Iraq", 4, San Diego International Law Journal, 2003.
-Halliday, Fred, 1990, Revolution and Foreign Policy , The Case of South Yemen, 1967-1987, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
-Harris, D.J., 1998, Cases and Materials on International law, Fifth Edition, Sweet and Maxwell.
-Heathcote, Gina, 2012, The Law on the Use of Force , A Feminist Analysis, Rutledge Research in International Law.
-Henkin, Louis, 1979, How Nations Behave?, 2nd edition, Council of Foreign Relations, Political Science
-Human Rights Watch, "Questions and Answers, The Conflict in Yemen and International Law", April 2015. Available at:  
International law Commission, Yeabook,1966-
International Law Commission, Yearbook, 2001, vol. II. -
- International law Institution, The Principle of Non-Intervention in Civil Wars, Session of Wiesbaden, 1975.
-Lowe,Vaunghan; Roberts,Adam; Welsh, Jennifer; Zaum, Dominik, The United Nations Security Council And War, The Evolution of Thought and Practice Since 1945, Oxford University Press, 2008.
-Mourgeon, J., "L' Intervention Internationale a' Titre Humanitaire ", Journal du Droit International , 3 ,1994,
-Mourphy, " The Doctrine of Preemptive Self-Defense ", 50 Villanova Law Review, (2005).
-Novak, Jane, 2010, "Ali Abdullah Saleh Family in Yemen Government and Business", in Armies of Liberation.
-O'Brien, W., 1981, The Conduct of Just and Limited War.
-Roberts, Adam, " The So Called Right of Humanitarian Intervention", Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 3, (2000),The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2002.
-Salmoni, Barak A.; Loidolt, Bryce; Wells, Madeleine, 2010, Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen, the Huthi Phenomenon, National Defense Research Institution, RAND Corporation.
-Shaw, Malcolm N., 2008, International Law, Sixth Edition, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
-Simma, B., "NATO, United Nations And The use of Force, Legal Aspects", Europian Journal of International Law, 10/1(1999).
-Wedeen, Lisa, 2008, Peripheral Visions: Publics, Power and Performance in Yemen, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
-Weir, Shelagh, 2007, A Tribal Order: Politics and Law in the Mountains of Yemen, (Austin: University of Texas Press)
پایگاه‌‌های داده‌ها
Al-Arabiya, 25 March, 2015
Al-Ayyam News, Web Site Mareb Press
Euronews,3,Feb. 2011 / 29, March 2015
                                                                                                            Middle East Report, No.86
اسناد،گزارش‌ها و رویه‌ها:
Human Rights Watch, "World Report 2015: Yemen", read on:                                                                                                  Institut' De Droit International, Resolution on Military Assistance on Request, 2011, available at:
UN doc. A/59/565 of 2 Dec. 2004
UNGA. Resolution, 31/21, 1965
UNGA.Resolution,2625, 1970
UNGA. Resolution, 103/36, 1981
UNGA. Resolution ,42/22, 1987
UNGA.Resolution,131/43, 1988
UNGA.Resolution,240/44, 1989
UNGA. Resolution, 100/45, 1990
UNGA. Resolution, 262/68, 2014
 UNSC. Security Council Press Statement on Yemen, 23 Oct. 2015
UNSC/2015/217, Distr : General/27 March 2015
UNSC. Resolution, 681, 1990
UNSC. Resolution, 841, 1991
UNSC. Resolution, 2014, 2011
UNSC. Resolution, 2051, 2012
UNSC. Resolution, 2140, 2014
UNSC. Resolution, 2201, 2015
UNSC. Resolution, 2204, 2015
UNSC. Resolution, 2216, 2015
Court of First Instance of The European Communities, Case T 306/01; Case T 315/01;  Case T 253/02; Case T 49/04  
ICJ., Nicaragua Case, 1986
ICJ., Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons 1996
ICJ., Oil Platform Case, 2003
ICJ., Wall Opinion, 2004
                                                                                                                  ICJ., Congo Case, 2005