1 Professor, Public and International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Theology, University of Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani, Isfahan, Iran


Since its beginning, International legal order has been based on trade-offs and reciprocity among States. Such order in substantive law and the Law of Responsibility is similar to the structures of private law. This similarity is the main obstacle to achieving a constitutional order that has the ability to provide adequate protection for individuals’ fundamental rights by relying on hierarchical standards. The development of International Law towards a new order is a result of humanitarian ideals which entered the legal system. Consequently, the future outlook suggests that development in the structure of the Law of Responsibility and implementation of responsibility is possible in the light of such adjustments.


  1. الف) فارسی

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      1. کمیسیون حقوق بین­الملل (1388) مسئولیت بین­المللی دولت، متن و شرح مواد کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل، ترجمۀ علیرضا ابراهیم گل، تهران، شهردانش.
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    ب) انگلیسی

    کتاب‌ها و مقالات

    1. Bassiouni, M. Cherif (1990), A Functional Approach to “General Principles of International Law’, Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol 11.
    2. Byers, Michael, Custom (2003), Power And The Power Of Rules: International Relations And Customary International Law, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
    3. Crawford, James (2013), Chance, Order, Change, The Course Of International Law, The Hague, Academy Of International Law.
      1. De Wet, Erika (2006), The International Constitutional Order, ICLQ, Vol 55.
      2. Greenwood, Christopher (2011), The Role Of The International Court Of Justice In The Global Community, University of California, Vol 17.
      3. Hall, Stephen, (2001) The Persistent Spectre: Natural Law, International Order And The Limits Of Legal Positivism, EJIL, Vol 12, No. 2.
        1. Meron, Theodor (2006), The Humanization Of International Law, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
        2. Noortmann, Math (2005), Enforcing International Law From Self-help to Self-contained Regimes, Ashgate, 2005.
          1. Pellet, Alain (2013),The ILC Guide To Practice On Reservations To Treaties:A General Presentation By The Special Rapporteur, EJIL, Vol. 24 No. 4
          2. Simma, Bruno and Andreas L. Paulus (1998), The 'International Community’: Facing the Challenge of Globalization, EJIL, 9.
            1. Tams, Christian J. (2005), Enforcing Obligations Erga Omnes in International Law, Cambridge University Press.
            2. Vattel, Emer De (2008), The Law Of Nations, Liberty Fund, 2008.





    1. ICJ, Case Conoerning United States Diplomate And Consular Staff In Tehran (United States Of America V. Iran), Judgment Of 24 May 1980.
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    4. ICJ, Case Concerning The Barcelona Traction, Light And Power Company, Limited (New Application : 1962) (Belgium V. Spain) Second Phase, ICJ, Judgment Of 5 February 1970.
    5. ICJ, Reservations To The Convention On The PreventionAnd Punishment Of The Crime Of Genocide , Icj, Advisory Opinion Of May 28th, 1951
    6. P.C.I.J, 1927, The Lotus Case (France V. Turkey), Series A, No. 10.