Document Type : Article


Assistant professor, public and international law department, faculty of law and political science, Shiraz University


The prohibition of torture as an independent crime in international law is Jus Cogens based on which states should not only avoid the issuance of permission or participation in the commission of this crime, but also prevent its occurrence. Over the past two decades, some states including the United States, especially in the war on terrorism, on the pretext of defending national security and protecting the lives of innocent people, have relied on a particular type of torture as preventive torture and have justified their actions under the self-defense and necessity. In the light of the examination of the performance of some states, this article, employing a descriptive-analytical method, examines the legitimacy of preventive torture from the point of view of the international Human Rights law. The results of the study unveil the commission of this crime is unjustifiable and is contrary to two fundamental rules of the absolute prohibition of torture and the respect for human dignity and, accordingly, leads to individual and state responsibility.


الف) کتاب‌ها
1. رفیعی، عالیه و دیگران (1388)، حقوق بشر از دیدگاه مجامع بین‌المللی، تهران: مؤسسۀ چاپ و انتشارات وزارت امور خارجه.
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ب) مقالات
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ج) پایان‌نامه
7.قدیمی، علیرضا (1392)، کرامت انسانی در رویۀ دیوان اروپایی حقوق بشر، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
2. انگلیسی
8. Wuraola O, Durosaro (2014), “The Use of Torture in the War on Terror: Should this 'Exceptional Measure' Be Justified in 'Exceptional Times'?”, American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vo1. 2, No. 2, pp.88-93.
9. Gur-Arye, Miriam & Florian Jessberger (2011), “The Protection of Human Dignity Interrogations: May Interrogative Torture ever be tolerated? Reflections in Lights of Recent German NAD Israeli Experiences”, Israel Law Review, Vol. 44, pp.229-262.
10. Hudson, B. & Walters, R (2009), “Justice in a Time of Terror”, British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 702-717.
11. Jessberger, Florian (2005), “Bad Torture- Good Torture?”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.3, No. 5, pp.1059-1073.
12. Kaufman, Whitley (2008), “Torture and the ‘‘Distributive Justice’’ Theory of Self-Defense: An Assessment”, Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 93–115.
13. Kotzmann, Jane & Cassandra Seery (2017), “Dignity in International Human Rights Law: Potential Applicability in Relation to International Recognition of Animal Rights”, Michigan State International Law Review, Vol.26, No. 1, pp.1-42.
14. Staberock, Gerald (2012), “Intelligence and counter-terrorism: towards a human rights and accountability framework?” in Counter-Terrorism: International Law and Practice, Edited by: A. Salinas de Frias, K. Samuel and N, White, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press.
15. Waldron, Jeremy (2006), “Torture and Positive Law: Jurisprudence for the White House”, Columbia Law Review, Vol. 105, No. 6, pp. 1681-1750.
16. Respect for Human Dignity in Today's Germany: Regional Court (Landgericht) of Frankfurt am Main, Decision of 20 December 2004, Daschner Wolfgang and E. Case, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2006, pp. 862-865.
C) Documents
17. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 17 July 1998.
18. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.
19. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966.
20. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 10 December 1984.
21. International Law Commission, Draft articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts with commentaries, UN Doc. A/56/10, 2001.
22. Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, UN Doc. A/59/324, 1 September 2004.
23. Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the Organization, UN Doc. Supplement No. 1 (A/59/1), 20 August 2004.
24. Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, UN Doc. A/HRC/22/53, 1 February 2013.
25. Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, UN Doc. A/HRC/25/60, 10 April 2014.
26. Committee against Torture, “Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 19 of the Convention”, UN Doc. CAT/C/CR/30/6, 23 June 2003.
27. Human Rights Watch, (2004), “The Road to Abu Ghraib”, New York.
28. U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.6 (1994), Human Rights Committee, General Comment 24 (52).
D) Judgemnets
29. Public Committee against Torture in Israel and Others v. The State of Israel, HCJ 5100/94, 1999.
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