Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Prof, Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allame Tabatabaii University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allame Tabatabaii University, Tehran, Iran


Sand and dust storms deeply affect Middle Eastern countries in social, economic and development terms. Iran and its neighbors are particularly impacted by these storms. Based on the study the international environmental obligations of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, this paper attempts to find a legal solution to the problem of sand and dust storms in the region. International obligations and domestic regulations of other countries in the region have also been studied. Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Turkey have accepted the responsibility to combat sand and dust storms by undertaking international environmental obligations. However, the main question is how these potential commitments could be transformed into action. To answer this question, the domestic laws and international obligations of these countries must be studied so that the best solutions with the least cost can be presented.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Fitzmaurice, Malgosia (2009), Contemporary Issues in International Environmental Law, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
    3. Pena, Devon G., (2005), Mexican Americans and the Environment: Tierra y Vida.Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
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    5. Singh, Judge N., (1986), ‘Foreword’, in R. D. Munro and J. G. Lammers (eds.), Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development: Legal Principles and Recommendations, Cambridge University.


    1. B) Articles
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    1. C) Documents
    2. Regulations for preparing and dealing with the harmful effects of dust (fine dust) in the country, 2009, Art. 1 (In Persian).
    3. Law on the Accession of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Seriously Faced with Drought or Desertification - Especially in Africa, 1996 (In Persian).
    4. Islamic Criminal Code, 2013 (In Persian).


    1. D) International Instruments
    2. A/Res/71/219
    3. A/Res/70/195
    4. Ankara Ministerial Declaration among The republic of Turkey, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Iraq, Syrian Arab Republic on Cooperation in the area of environment and meteorology
    5. Atmos. J., 2013, Asia-Pacific Sci., 49(3), 279-286,
    6. C148 - Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148)
    7. Challenges facing Iraq’s Environment , Nature-Iraq House 25, Street 27 Ashti District 104, Sulaimani Kurdistan Region, Iraq,
    8. E/ESCAP/RES/72/7
    9. The environment protection policy was adopted in the Basic Law of Governance (i.e. Article 32)
    10. The National Environmental Strategy and Action Plan for Iraq (2013 – 2017), P XI
    11. Twenty-seventh session of the Governing Council/ Global Ministerial Environment Forum22-28 February 2013/ UNEP Headquarters, United Nations Complex, Gigiri
    12. UN Iraq, sand and dust storm, JAPU
    13. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/ or Desertification, particularly in Africa,( 1994)
    14. V. K. Sissakian et al. / Natural Science 5 (2013) 1084-1094
    15. WHO/SDE/OEH/99.14


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    References In Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Abdoulahie, Mohsen; Mashhadi, Ali & Faryadi, mashoud (2012), The law of air protection, First edition, Tehran: Mizan publication (In Persian).
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    1. B) Articles
    2. Alizadeh, Imran, Pishgahifarahra (2011), “Environmental security and the evolution of the concept of security in the 21 century”, Journal of Geographical Perspective , 6th year, No. 14 (In Persian).
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