Document Type : Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc, University of Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani, Isfahan, Iran


As “work” is a creative, productive and transformative act, leisure activities are also an individual’s relatively spontaneous and free activity to self-recreation, self-expression and self-recovery. Several components such as reasonable working time, a specific time for rest, periodic leave, and vacations and holidays will enable workers to leisure from working and as well as  guarantee their health, safety and efficiency. International human rights law focuses on this issue and recognizes rest and leisure as a human right as provided in some universal and regional instruments. Article 24 of universal declaration of human rights and article 7 of International Covenant on Economic, Social And Cultural Rights are seen as the most important sources for this purpose. This right of the worker and the obligation of states to guarantee this right for workers ensures their human dignity. This paper analyzes the requirements of the right to rest and leisure  and examines the obligations of states to realize and ensure this right for workers.


  1. انگلیسی

    1. A) Books
    2. Clarke, A. (2001), women’s rights at work. a handbook of employment law, first published, london, pluto press.
    3. Humblet, M. and Hult, L. (2015), “The right to rest for domestic workers– Setting a floor”, ILO’s WORK IN PROGRESS 3, international Labour organization.
    4. Seo, J.W. (2011), Excessive Overtime, Workers and Productivity: Evidence and Implications for Better Work, Better Work Discussion Paper Series: No. 2. International Labour Organization (ILO) and International Finance Corporation (IFC).
    5. Schulze, M. (2009), Understanding the Un Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities a Handbook on the Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Handicap International, Professional Publications Unit, Catherine Dixon.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Sarantinos, V. (2007), “Flexibility in the workplace: What happens to Commitment?”, Journal of Business and Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 9-35.
    3. Shagvaliyeva, S. & Yazdanifard, R. (2014), “Impact of Flexible Working Hours on Work- Life Balance”, American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, Vol. 4, pp. 20-23 .
    4. Richards, D. & Carbonettib, B. (2012), “worth what we decide: a defense of the right to leisure”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 17, Issue 3, pp. 1-12.


    1. C) Documents
    2. African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Union, (1981).
    3. CEDAW, (2009), General recommendation No. 26 on women migrant workers.
    4. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (2000).
    5. Convention (No. 82): Social Policy (Non-Metropolitan Territories), International Labour Organization, (1947).
    6. Convention No 1: Hours of Work (Industry), International Labour Organization, (1919).
    7. Convention No 138: Minimum Age, International Labour Organization, (1973).
    8. Convention No 30: Hours of work (Commerce and offices), International Labour Organization, (1930).
    9. Convention No. 111: Discrimination (Employment and Occupation), International Labour Organization, (1958).
    10. Convention No. 14: Weekly Rest, Intrnational Labour Organization, (1921).
    11. Convention No. 156: Workers with Family Responsibilities, International Labour Organization, (1981).
    12. Convention No. 159: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons), International Labour Organization, (1983).
    13. Convention No. 188: Work in Fishing, International Labour Organization, (2007)
    14. Convention No.116: on Reduction of Hours of Work Recommendation, International Labour Organization, (1962).
    15. Convention No.97: Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), International Labour Organization, (1949)
    16. Convention, No. 180: Seafarers' Hours of Work and the Manning of Ships, International Labour Organization, (1996).
    17. ECOSOC, (1951), Report to the Economic and Social Council on the seventh session of the Commission
    18. ECOSOC, (1990), General Comment No. 3: On The nature of States parties’ obligations(art. 2, para. 1, of the Covenant).
    19. ECOSOC, (2005), General Comment No. 16: On The equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights (art. 3 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)
    20. ECOSOC, (2009), General Comment No. 20 : on Non-discrimination in economic, social and cultural rights (art. 2, para. 2, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)
    21. ECOSOC, (2016), General Comment No. 23: On the Right to Just and Favourable Conditions of Work (Article 7 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), (2016)
    22. European Social Charter (Revised), Council of Europe, (1996), European Treaty Series - No. 163, (1996)
    23. IMO / ILO Guidelines for the Development of Tables of Seafarers' Shipboard Working Arrangements and Formats of Records of Seafarers Hours of Work and Rest, International Labour Organization, (1996).
    24. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, United Nation. (General Assembly)), (1990)
    25. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, United Nation. (General Assembly), (1966)
    26. International Labour Organization ,(2001), Decent Work for Domestic Workers Convention No. 189 & Recommendation No. 201 (at a glance).
    27. International Labour Organization, (2004), »Information Sheet No . WT-6 (Paid annual leave) «.
    28. International labour organization, (2011), conditins of work and employment programme working time in the twenty-first century, report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Working-time Arrangements.
    29. Recommendation No .21: concerning the Development of Facilities for the Utilisation of Workers' Spare Time (withdrawn instrument), International Labour Organization, (1924).
    30. Recommendation No 103: Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices), International Labour Organization, (1957).
    31. Recommendation No 130: Examination of Grievances, International Labour Organization, (1967).
    32. Recommendation No. 162: Older Workers, International Labour Organization, (1980).
    33. Recommendation No. 165: Workers with Family Responsibilities, International Labour Organization, (1981).
    34. Recommendation No. 168: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Recommendation, International Labour Organization, (1983).
    35. Recommendation No. 99: Vocational Rehabilitation (Disabled) Recommendation, International Labour Organization, (1955) .
    36. Recommendation No.161: The Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport), International Labour Organization, (1979).
    37. The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, Organization of the Islamic Conference, (1990)
    38. The Meritime labour Convention, Intrnational Labour Organization , (2006)
    39. Vienna International Plan of Action on Aging, United Nation (Genneral Assembly), (1982).
    40. Weely Rest Convention No. 106, International Labour Organization, (1957).


    References in Persian:

    1. A) Books
    2. Alavioun, Seyed Mohammad Reza (2002), Women's Work in Iranian Law and International Labor Law, 1st ed, Tehran, Roshangaran va Motaleaat-e Zanan (In Persian).
    3. Eraghi, Ezatollah (1989), International Labour Law, Tehran: University of Tehran (In Persian).
    4. Ghazi Moradi, Hasan (2007), work and leisure of Iranians, 2nd ed, Tehran, Akhgaran (In Persian).
    5. Jalali Farahani, Majid (2008), Management of leisure and recreational sports, 1st ed, Tehran: University of Tehran (In Persian).


    1. B) Articles
    2. “Information; Documents (Agreement and Recommendation): Agreement on Migration for Employment (Revised 1949)”, (2010), Social Security, Vol. 13, pp. 283-318 (In Persian).
    3. Ghanavat, Mohammad Hadi (2015), “Compliance of Women's Working Conditions in Iran with International Labor Laws and Regulations”, International Conference on Behavioral Sciences and Social Studies (In Persian).
    4. Hemati, Mojtaba & Amir Arhmand, Ardeshir.(2007), “Review and Analysis of Guarantees of International Economic and Social Rights (Welfare Rights) in Domestic Legal Systems”, Elahyat va Hoghoogh, Vol. 23, pp. 27-46 (In Persian).
    5. Mashayekhi Foad, Reza (1967), “The role of human relations in industrial and commercial organizations”, Bourse, Vol. 44, pp 156-162 (In Persian).
    6. Pejman, Navid (2009), “A Different Look at the Phenomenon of Leisure: Leisure Is Not Unemployment”, Gozaresh, Vol. 209, pp. 62-63 (In Persian).
    7. Saeidi, Ali Asghar. (2009), “Transformation in leisure studies”, Youth Studies, Vol. 13, pp. 31-52 (In Persian).
    8. Tohidi, Ahmad Reza. (2012), “Evolution of Family Law and Women Rights in International and Regional Documents and Domestic Law”, Cultural and Social Council of Womens and Family, Vol. 57, pp. 5-52 (In Persian).