Document Type : Article


1 PhD Student in Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Department of International Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Since the cyberspace has changed the concept of national sovereignty and political independence of states, the international community is obliged to react to it and protect cyber sovereignty. Thus, within the framework of international law, the international community has foreseen the national jurisdiction to prosecute violations of cyber sovereignty in accordance with international criminal law as well as ancillary jurisdiction with due regard to governance considerations. At the first step the Tallinn's talks expanded the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court by defining cyber-aggression as a violation of international peace and security and the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of states (national sovereignty). The enhancement of the authority of this institution in accordance with customary international law in line with international criminal policy of countering impunity is done in order to maintain and restore international cyber peace and security.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Akehurst, Michael, (2008), Jurisdiction in International Law, Published Oxford university press , 8th Edition
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    13. Schiff, Benjamin N.(2008), Building the International Criminal Court. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    14. Schmitt, Michael N (2017), Tallinn Manual on The International Law Applicable To Cyber Warfare2. Cambridge University Press.
    15. Schmitt, Michael N.(2010), Cyber Operations in International Law: The Use of Force, Collective Security, Self Defence, and Armed Conflicts, Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyber Attacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, Washington: National Academic Press.
    16. Stahn, Carsten & Sluiter, Göran (2009), The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court, Legal Aspects of International Organization. Vol. 48. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.


    1. B) Articles
    2. Ambos, Kai (2016), “Individual Criminal Responsibility for Cyber Aggression” Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Oxford University Press, pp.495–504.
    3. Anderson, Michel (2010), “Reconceptualizing Aggression“. Vol 60, Duke law Journal, Issue 11.
    4. Delmas, Marty Mireille (2006), “Interctions between National and Internation Criminal Law in the Preliminary Phasr of Trial at the I.C.C“, Journal of Internation Criminal justice, No.4.
    5. Dunlap Jr, Charles J. (2011), “Major General, USAF Retired, Perspectives for Cyber Strategists on Law for Cyberwar”, Strategic Studies Quarterly 5(1).
    6. Dashora, K.(2011),"Cyber Crime in the Society: Problems and Preventions". Journal of Alternative Persepctive in the Social Science , Vol.3 , No. 1.
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    8. Ophardt, Jonathan A. (2010),“Cyber Warfare and the Crime of Aggression: The Need for Individual Accountability on Tomorrow’s Battlefield”, Duke Law and Technology Review.


    1. C) Documents
    2. Libman V.(1985), The Queen in supreme cort Judgments. Collection 1985,Canada,2SCR. Para 74.
    3. 24. Report to the San Francisco conference, 9 unclo (1945) ; Declaration on Friendly , Pmble
    4. Restatment (Third),Part IV,Mann 1984,at19;Oppenheims International Law ,at 65; shaws International Law , at 469
    5. The Draft Convention On Research in Internationnal Law of the Harvard Law Scool , (Supp.1935) 29AM.J, int-1/435 & 466


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    1. B) Articles
    2. Jalali, Gholamreza (2016), "Papsa News", the monthly magazine of the country's inactive passive defense organization: No. 13 (In Persian).
    3. Khalilipour Roknabadi, Ali & Noor Alivand, Yaser (2015), "Cyber Threats and Its Impact on National Security", Strategic Studies Quarterly, Year 15: Issue 2 (In Persian).