Document Type : Article

Author

Assistant Professor, Law Department, Faculty of Humanities, University of Damghan, Damghan, Iran

Abstract

World models, that are national and international legal systems, confirm the fact that the greater special protection of fundamental rights can help the development of a legal system. The attention to the internal potentiality and gaps in an era in which fundamental and citizenship rights are at the centre of the debate, it forces us to find ways for turn words in deeds. After the presentation of data and their interpretation, we must answer to the following question: based on national and international models and particularities of the Iranian system, what methods and institutions can better apply the special protection of Iranian citizens fundamental rights? At the end we’ll find this solution: the creation of a special institution called “Citizenship Rights Court” with the purpose of complete and carry out art. 25 of the Iranian Penal Procedure Code or the broadening of competences of Guardian Council within the constitutional legitimacy supervison of the laws of the legislative power (subsequent supervision) may be ways to improve Iranian legal systems in the sphere of special protection of fundamental rights of citizens.

Keywords

  1.  

    English

    1. A) Books
    2. Bryce, James (1921), Modern Democracies. Vol. I, New York, MacMillan.
    3. Miller, Russel & Zumbansen, Peer (2012), Comparative Law as Transnational Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    4. Mole, Nuala (2008), Asylum and the European Convention on Human Rights, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing.
    5. Pasqualucci, Jo (2013), The Practice and Procedure of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
    6. Tatham, Alan (2013), Central European constitutional courts in the face of EU membership: the influence of the German model in Hungary and Poland, Leiden, Nijhof.

     

    1. B) Articles
    2. Hill, Jonathan (2003), “The Exercise of Jurisdiction in Private International Law”, in Capps, Patrick and Others (Ed.), Asserting Jurisdiction: International and European Perspectives, Oxford, Hart, pp.39-63.
    3. McCann, Timothy (1982), “The American Convention on Human Rights: Toward Uniform Interpretation of Human Rights Law”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 6, Issue 3, pp.610-635.
    4. Palombella, Gianluigi (2006), “From Human Rights to Fundamental Rights. Consequences of a conceptual distinction”, Eui Working Paper Law, No. 34, pp.1-35.
    5. Shelton, Dinah (1994). “The Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights”, International Law Review, Vol. 10, Issue 1, pp.333-372.

     

    Italian

    1. A) Libri
    2. Chiti, Mario, Greco, Guido (2007). Trattato di diritto amministrativo europeo, Tomo I, Milano, Giuffré. ,
    3. D’Ignazio, Guerino (2011), Multilevel constitutionalism tra integrazione europea e riforme degli ordinamenti decentrati, Milano, Giuffré.
    4. Fukuyama, Francis (1992), La fine della storia e l’ultimo uomo, Milano, Rizzoli.
    5. Iagulli, Paolo (2013), Diritti riproduttivi e fecondazione artificiale. Studio di sociologia dei diritti umani, Milano, Franco Angeli.
    6. Maranini, Giuseppe (2003), La Costituzione degli Stati Uniti d’America, Catanzaro, Rubbettino.
    7. Mezzetti, Luca (2013), Manuale breve diritto costituzionale, Milano, Giuffré.
    8. Mezzetti, Luca, Pizzolo, Calogero (2013), Diritto processuale dei diritti umani, Rimini, Maggioli.
    9. Onida, Valerio & Pedrazza Gorlero, Maurizio (2014), Compendio di diritto costituzionale, Milano, Giuffré.
    10. Schmitt, Carl (2014), Le categorie del poltico, Bologna, Il Mulino.
    11. Tonini, Paolo (2017), Manuale di procedura penale, Milano, Giuffré.
    12. Zingales, Ignazio (2007), Pubblica amministrazione e limiti della giurisdizione tra principi costituzionali e strumenti processuali, Milano, Giuffré.

     

    1. B) Articoli
    2. Cartabia, Marta (2009), “L’universalità dei diritti umani nell’età dei «nuovi diritti»”, Quaderni Costituzionali, Anno 29, n. 3, 537-568.
    3. Cavaliere, Stefania (2015), “Questioni attuali in tema di nuovi diritti”, Diritti Fondamentali, n. 1, 1-43.
    4. Gerbasi, Giampaolo (2013),“Forme e tecniche di tutela dei diritti fondamentali nella giurisprudenza costituzionale sui rapporti tra la CEDU e l’ordinamento italiano e possibili mutamenti conseguenti alla futura adesione dell’Unione europea al sistema convenzionale”, Civitas Europa, Vol. 30, N. 1, 69-98.
    5. Puppinick, Gregor (2012), “Il caso Lautsi contro l’Italia”, Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale, n. 1, 1-50.
    6. Sciarabba, Vincenzo (2017), “La tutela dei diritti fondamentali nella Costituzione, nella Convenzione europea dei diritti dell’uomo e nella Carta dei diritti fondamentali dell’UE”, Rivista AIC, n. 1, 1-44.

     

    1. C) Documenti
    2. Corte costituzionale (2006), “I diritti fondamentali nella giurisprudenza della Corte costituzionale”, Relazione predisposta in occasione dell’incontro della delegazione della Corte costituzionale con il Tribunale costituzionale della Repubblica di Polonia, 1-48.

    Persian

    1. A) Articles
    2. Aryaei, Vahid & Malekmohammadi, Hamidreza (2014), “Comparative Analysis of Principles of Judiciary Review About Administrative Office and Evaluation of Review Models in Iran, UK, France and Germany Legal Systems”, Journal of Comparative Law, Issue 1, Vol. 101, pp.155-176 (In Persian).
    3. Gorji Azandariani, Aliakbar (2004), “Principles and Meaning of Fundamental Rights”, Constitutional Law Journal, Year 2, No. 2, pp.8-26 (In Persian).
    4. Jalali, Mohammad & Saidi Roshan, Hamideh (2016), “The Role of Administrative Justice Court About Safeguard of Constitution”, Journal of Justice Law, Year 8, No. 94, pp.122-146 (In Persian).
    5. Khalafrezaei, Hossein (2013), “Analysis of Duties and Activities of Germany Federal Constitutional Court”, Analysis of Public Law Review, Year 2, No. 1, pp.1-26 (In Persian).
    6. Manourian, Naserali & Mollazadeh, Ali (2015), “Questions About Safeguard of Islamic Republic of Iran Constitution”, Journal of Science and Research About Islamic Jurisprudence and Law”, Year 6, No. 11, pp.249-298 (In Persian).
    7. Mirdamad Najafabadi, Seyed Ali (2011), “Competence and Limits of Powers of Administrative Justice Court”, Law Knowledge, Year 1, No. 1, pp.35-66 (In Persian).
    8. Parvin, Kheirollah & Mazoddini, Amirhossein (2019), “Judge’s Role in Safeguard of Fundamental Rights with Attention about Constitutional Court Rules”, Public Law Studies Review, Issue 49, No. 2, pp.491-511 (In Persian).
    9. Rostami, Soraya (2013), “Citizenship Rights and Legal Freedoms”, Research Journal of Islamic Law and Law Principles, Year 1, No. 1, pp.141-162 (In Persian).
    10. Vijeh, Mohammadreza (2012), “Judicial Review of Administrative Justice Court About Executive Rules”, Law Research Review, Year 14, No. 37, pp.171-202 (In Persian).