Document Type : Article


1 Associate prof. Department of international law, central Tehran branch,, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in international law, Department of international law, central Tehran branch,, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



The international law system based on groundbreaking  human-rights standards - which has amounted to a fundamental change in the international legal values from an outward view (state to state) to an inward view (state to nation) - has compelled all states to change their approach in domestic legal system. Moreover, to protect their identity as a civilized member of international community all states are anxious to coordinate domestic rules and regulations with progressive human-rights standards. National courts are among the main sources by which international legal standards can penetrate into national legal systems. In this paper, based on hypothesis that national judicial decisions have an evident impact on the settlement of national and international conflicts, it will be argued that by interpreting laws in line with international legal sources, national courts can strengthen human rights related standards. This role is compatible with two main theories namely, coordination and prioritization between national and international sources both of which lead to the convergence of national and international legal systems.


  1. English

    1. A) Books
    2. Sloss, David & Van Alstine Michael (2015), International Law in Domestic Courts, Santa Clara Digital Commons,, Available at:,
    3. Sloss, David (2009), "the role of Domestic court in treaty Enforcement, a comparative study, Santa Clara University School of Law, New York, Cambridge University press


    B (Articles

    1. Altwicker, Tilmann (2018), "Transnationalizing Rights: International Human Rights Law in Cross-Border Contexts", the European Journal of International Law, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 581–606 DOI:10.22059/jplsq.2018.240446.1573.
    2. Amos, Merris (2017), "The Value of the European Court of Human Rights to the United Kingdom", The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 763–785.
    3. 5. Focarelli, Carlo (2005), "Denying Foreign State Immunity for Commission of International Crimes: The Ferrini Decision", International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 54, pp.951-958.
    4. Glanvill, Luke (2017)." The Responsibility to Protect beyond Borders in the Law of Nature and Nations", The European Journal of International Law,Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 1069– 1095.
    5. Hasanat, Abul, (2013)."Using International Law in National Courts: Bangladesh Perspective"13 (1 &2) Bangladesh Journal of Law", Vol. 13, pp. 49-73.
    6. Hathaway, Oona A. (2002)." Do Human Rights Treaties Make a Difference?", The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 111, pp.1935-2042.
    7. Krep, Sarah Elizabeth & Arena, Anthony clark (2006),"Why states follow the rules: toward a positional theory of adherence to international legal regimes", duke journal of comparative &international law, Vol. 16, pp.331-414.
    8. Kunz, Raffaela (2020), "Judging International Judgments Anew? The Human Rights Courts before Domestic Courts", the European Journal of International Law, Vol. 30, pp.1129- 1163.
    9. Laith K. Nasrawin (2016), "an International Constitutional Court: Future Roles & Challenges" Digest of Middle East Studies,Vol. 25, pp.210–226 DOI: 10.1111/dome.12090.
    10. Niels, Petersen (2017), " The International Court of Justice and the Judicial Politics of Identifying Customary International Law", the European Journal of International Law, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 357–385.
    11. Outi, Korhone (2017), " Within and Beyond Interdisciplinarity in International Law and Human Rights", The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 625–648.
    12. Roberto, Arthur & Giannattasio, Capella (2018), "the Interaction between International and Domestic Legal Orders: Framing the Debate according to the Post-Modern Condition of International Law "German law journal, Vol.19, No.01 pp.1-20.
    13. Sandlotz, Wayne (2015), "How domestic courts use international law?", Fordham international law journal, Vol, 38, issue 2 article 5, pp. 595-636.
    14. Shelton, Dinah (2003(, "Boundaries of Human Rights Jurisdiction in Europe", duke journal of comparative &international law, Vol. 13, pp. 95-142.
    15. Sloss, David (2011), “Domestic Application of Treaties”, Santa Clara Law Digital Commons, pp. 1-27 Available at:
    16. Woolaver, Hannah (2019), "From Joining to Leaving: Domestic Law’s Role in the International Legal Validity of Treaty Withdrawal" The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 30, No. 1, 73–104


    C (cases

    1. A.I.R, 1997, Vishaka v. The State of RajasthanS.C. 3011 para.13 (India)
    2. Court of Appeal Florence, 2002, Ferrini v. Germany, Arezzo Tribunal No. 1403198
    3. Court of Cassation decision, 2004, no: 5044/4, ILDC 19, 128 ILR. 658.
    4. ECHR, 1996, loizidou v. Turkey, judgment (merits), para, 43 and 52
    5. House of lords, 1999, opinions of the lords of appeal for judgment in the cause Regina v. Bartle and the commissioner of police for the metropolis and others (appellants) ex parte found on the following web site: HRNZ, 1994, Simpson v. Attorney General, at 42-43
    6. ICJ Reports, 2004, Advisory opinion about legal consequences of the construction of a wall in the occupied Palestinian territory, para 1570
    7. P.C.I.J. Reports, 1935, the Greco-Bulgarian Communities Case Series B No.10 (
    8. P.C.I.J. Reports, 1932, Free Zones Case series A/B No. 46
    9. P.C.I.J, 1931, The Polish Nationals in Danzing case, series A/B, No. 44.
    10. S.C.R, 1989, Slaight Communications Inc. v. Davidson, 1. 1038 (Can.)
    11. Verwaltungsgerichtsh of Baden Württemberg, 1996, Judgment, 10 S 1765/96, in particular, pp. 11-16


    1. D) Other Documents
    2. Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: A Manual on Human Rights for Judges, Prosecutors and Lawyers Chapter1 international human rights law and the role of the


    Refrences In Persian:

    1. A) Articles
    2. Izadi, Ali (2015),"A Comparative View of the Implementation of International Law in National Courts", Public Law Studies Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp.497-529 (In Persian).
    3. Sohrabloo, Ali & Tajarloo, Reza (1398), the Impact of Domestic Law on the Rules and Norms of International Law, Public Law Studies Quarterly, Volume 49, No. 2, pp. 470-499 (In Persian).
    4. Kadkhodai, Abbasali & Maghami, Amir (1397), "The Consequences of a Imperiously Reading of International Law" International Law Review, Vol. 35, No. 59, pp. 7-38 (In Persian).
    5. 4. Walter, Susan (2005), "Revival and Reconstruction of the History of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights", translated by Abbas Khalaji, Journal of the Faculty of Humanities (Imam Hossein University), Fourteenth Year, No. 61, pp. 161-192 (In Persian).


    1. B) Judgments
    2. Judgment No. 99/02264 dated 11/10/99 Branch 13 of the Court of Appeal of Mazandaran Province (In Persian).
    3. Judgment No. 98/00839 dated 17/5/98 Branch 19 of the Court of Appeal of Mazandaran Province (In Persian).
    4. Judgment No. 97/01283 dated 7/12/97 Branch 13 of the Court of Appeal of Kermanshah Province (In Persian).
    5. Judgment No. 98/00317dated 4/4/98, Branch 13 of the Court of Appeal of Kermanshah Province (In Persian).
    6. Judgment No. /971055dated 10/15/98, Branch 13 of the Court of Appeal of Kermanshah Province (In Persian).
    7. Judgment No. 99/00011 First Branch of Dashti General Civil Court (Khormoj) (In Persian).