Document Type : Article
Prof, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Ph.D. Student in Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
The constitution is a national pact and as such must be more consistent than other laws and no event, or changing of taste or time should be allowed to change it. That being the case, the passing of time, new needs, and inefficiency of the constitution when facing changes cannot be overlooked. Also, the real owners of the constitution are the people, and the right to govern is given to governments by the people. The purpose of this research is to propose an argumentative framework to justify the new generation’s right to demand changes in the constitution. The basic question of the research is how can the new generation’s demand right be accepted in relation to the principle of constitutional stability? Based on the hypothesis of the research, the new generation’s right to demand constitutional change is accepted in the framework of the changeable principles of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the present study, the descriptive-analytical method is used to investigate the relationship between generations’ demands and the constitution. The results of the research indicate that the unchangeable articles of the constitution are absolutely permanent and there could be no demand for amending them, but the changeable articles can be amended in light of new generation’s right to demand constitutional changes.
- A) Books
- Avril, p. & Gicquel, J (2010), Droit Parlementaire, Montchrstien.
- Eseng’Ekeli, Jacques Djoli, DROIT CONSTITUTIONNEL- Principes Structuraux , Tome1, UNIVERSTITAIRES AFRICAINES
- Favoreu, Louis & Authoers (2019), Droit constitutionnel, Paris: Dalloz.
- Hamon, Fransic & Troper, Michel (2014), Droit constitutionnel, LGDJ.
- Roznai, Yaniv (2017), Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendments: The Limits
of Amendment Powers, Oxford University Press.
- B) Articles
- Colon-Rios, Joel (2010),” The Legitimacy of the Juridical: Constituent Power, Democracy, and the Limits of Constitutional Reform”, Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Vol. 48, pp. 199-245.
References in Persian & Arabic:
- A) Books
- Ibrahim Anis; Abdul Halim Montaser; Attia Al-Sawalhi ; Muhammad Khalaf Ahmad (2007), intermediate dictionary , Vol. I, Translated by Mohammad Bandar Rigi, 2 ed, Tehran, Islamic Publications (In Arabic).
- Edmon, Robat (2010), Introduction to Constitutional Rights, translated by Khayrollah Parvin ed 1, Tehran: Jangal Press (In Persian).
- Ansari, Shoushtari & Mohammad, Ali (1994), The Facilitated Fiqh Encyclopedia, followed by the Fundamental Appendix, Vol. 1, Qom: Islamic Thought Association Press (In Arabic).
- Bashirieh, Hussein (2018), Political Sociology (The Role of Political Forces in Political Life), 27ed, Tehran: Ney Press (In Persian).
- Bahadori Jahromi, Mohammad; Darvish Motavi, Meysam & Fattahi Zafarghandi, Ali (2018), Explanation of the Constitution Chapter 6 of the Guardian Council Principles 95, 94, 93 and 98, Vol. I, under the supervision of Abbas Ali Kadkhodai, 1 ed, Tehran: Guardian Council Research Institute (In Persian).
- Jafari Langroudi, Mohammad Jafar (1378), Extensive in Legal Terminology, Vol.3, 1 ed, Tehran: Ganj-e-Danesh Press (In Persian).
- A group of authors (2010), Culture of the Principles of Jurisprudence, Vol. I,1ed, Qom: Institute of Islamic Sciences and Culture (In Persian).
- Javadi Amoli, Abdullah (1989), Velayat-e-Faqih (Leadership in Islam), Vol. I, 2ed, Tehran: Raja (In Persian).
- Rasekh, Mohammad; Kosheshkar, Rayhaneh & Ameri, Faezeh (2015), Regulation in the Judiciary,1ed, Tehran: Drak (In Persian).
- Sobhani, Jafar, Eternal Charter , Qom: Imam Sadegh Institute (In Persian).
- Soroush, Abdul Karim (2013), Expansion of Prophetic Experience, 6 ed, Tehran: Sarat Institute (In Persian).
- Seyyed Morteza, Ali Ibn Al-Hussein (1990), Ammunition in theology, Qom: Islamic Publishing Institute (In Arabic).
- Shahidi, Mehdi (2014), Effects of Contracts and Obligations, 6 ed, Tehran: Majd press (In Persian).
- Sadr, Seyed Mohammad Baqir (2020), An introductory jurisprudential overview of the draft constitution for the Islamic Republic of Iran, Islam leads life Collection, Beirut: Dar Al Tarif Publications (In Arabic).
- Tabatabai, Mohammad Hossein (2018). Islam and Contemporary Man (Islamic Studies), Vol. 2, by Seyyed Hadi Khosroshahi, Qom: Resalat (In Persian).
- Amid, Hassan (2009), Farhang Farsi Amid, 1ed , Tehran: Farhang Nama (In Persian).
- Amid Zanjani, Abbas Ali (2005), Political Jurisprudence, Vol. I, Tehran: Amir Kabir (In Persian).
- Qari Seyed Fatemi, Seyed Mohammad (2017), Contemporary Human Rights, Vol. 1, 5 ed, Tehran: Negah maser (In Persian).
- Ghazi Shariat Panahi, Abolfazl (2011), Essentials of Constitutional Law, 40ed, Tehran: Mizan Press (In Persian).
- Ghorashi, Ali Akbar (1991), Quran Dictionary, Vol. 4, Tehran: Dar al-Kitab al-Islamiya (In Persian).
- Qanawati, Jalil (2010), Islamic Legal System, 2ed, Qom, Al-Mustafa International Translation and Publishing Center (In Persian).
- Katozian, Nasser (2015), Philosophy of Law, Vol. 1, 8ed, Tehran: Sahami Enteshar Press (In Persian).
- Kadivar, Mohsen (2014), People's Rights - Islam and Human Rights, 5ed, Tehran: Kavir (In Persian).
- Kaabi, Abbas (2015), Fundamentals of the Constitutional Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1ed, Tehran: Imam Sadegh University Student Basij Publishing (In Persian).
- Koosha, Jafar (2010). Crimes against Judicial Justice, 2ed, Tehran: Mizan (In Persian).
- Gorji Azandariani, Ali Akbar (1399), Constitutional Review - Rethinking the Coexistence of Power and Freedom in the Islamic Republic, 1ed, Tehran: Negah e Maaser (In Persian).
- Mojtahed Shabestari, Mohammad (2002), Hermontics of Book and Tradition (Revelation Interpretation Process), 5ed, Tehran: Tarhe No Press (In Persian).
- Mahmsani, Sobhi (1979). Philosophy of Legislation in Islam, translated by Ismail Golestani, 12ed, Tehran: Amirkabir (In Persian).
- Madani, Jalaluddin (2007), Principles and generalities of jurisprudence, 16ed, Tehran: Paydar (In Persian).
- Mustafavi, Mohammad Kazem (2000), Fiqh rules,Vol.I, 4ed, Islamic publications dependent with the Qom Seminary Teachers Association (In Arabic).
- Motahari, Morteza (2002), Islam and the requirements of the time, Vol. II, 13ed, Qom: Sadra (In Persian).
- Motahari, Morteza (2002), Imamate and leadership, 27 ed, Qom: Sadra (In Persian).
- Moein, Mohammad (2003), Moein Persian dictionary, Vol. 1, Tehran: Si Gol press (In Persian).
- Mufid, Muhammad ibn Nu'man (1989), Al-Muqna ', 2ed, Qom: Islamic Publishing Institute (In Arabic).
- Mansoorian, Mustafa (2018), Description of the Constitution - Chapter 14 Review of the Constitution Article 177, under the supervision of Abbas Ali Kadkhodai, 1ed, Tehran: Guardian Council Research Institute (In Persian).
- Muzaffar, Mohammad Reza (1994), Principles of Jurisprudence, Vol. 2, Qom: Qom Seminary Islamic Propaganda Office (In Persian).
- Naini, Mirza Mohammad Hussein (2019), Tanbih al-Ummah and Tanzih al-Mullah, corrected and researched by Seyyed Javad Varei, 4ed, Qom: Bostan Ketab (In Arabic).
- Wael bin Halaq (2019), History of Islamic Legal Theories, translated by Mohammad Rasekh, 5ed, Tehran: Ney press (In Persian).
- B) Articles
- Arjang, Ardavan & Alizadeh, Fatemeh (2013), "The challenge of stability and universality of rulings with emphasis on the view of Imam Khomeini", Matin Research Journal, No. 60, pp. 1-28 (In Persian).
- Aslani, Firooz and Abdolmajid Rahmanian (1396)." Examining the Legal Validity of Unchangeable Principles of the Constitution with a View to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran", Quarterly Journal of Public Law Knowledge of public law, No. 17, pp.45-65 In Persian).
- Aslani, Firooz and Maryam Ziyai Najafabadi, (1398). " Explanation of the reasons of the validity of the transgenerational constitution", Quarterly Journal of Public Law Knowledge of public law Journal, No. 1724, pp.19-40 In Persian).
- Kaviani, Mohammad Hadi and Mohammad Javad Hosseini (1396). "Examination of the Necessity or Non-Necessity of Revision of the Constitution with the New Generations", Journals Law Scholars, No. 12, pp. 5-22 In Persian).
- Mirzaei, Iqbal Ali (2014), "Law and its temporal validity with emphasis on the concept and characteristics of the Provisional Law", Legal Journal of Justice, No. 75, pp. 171-145 (In Persian).