1 Assistant Professor, Department of Public and International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student, Law of Oil and Gas, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Occupation of countries without the permission of the UN's Security Council- As the Authority to permit the Use of Force- have occurred on several occasions in the History of the United Nations. During the years of ongoing armed conflict between ISIS and the States of Syria and Iraq, in addition to invading parts of the territories of the two states, the mentioned group has also seized a number of oil and gas fields as well as related infrastructures. As a result, ISIS stands to gain benefits by selling crude oil which is one of the most important sources of its revenue. Israel has also exploited the marine oil and gas resources unilaterally by occupying Palestine since 1995. The issue of occupation is subject to International Law of Belligerent Occupation. As a legal situation, belligerent occupation is followed by legal effects which will in turn raise new issues in the field of Occupation. Hence, whether the occupant has the right to seize and use oil and gas reservoirs and infrastructures and if so, to what extent the rules and regulations of the Law of Belligerent Occupation protect the oil and gas reservoirs and infrastructures as governmental properties, are some of the consequential questions in need of an answer. In this study, the rules of The 1907 Hague Convention and the fourth Geneva Convention of 1949- both in association with properties- are considered to determine the situation of oil and gas reservoirs and infrastructures in the Occupied State and also to provide a commentary on the efficiency and usefulness of these rules and regulations. 


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- سایت