نویسنده

دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، عضو هیئت‌علمی مؤسسة مطالعات و پژوهش‌های بازرگانی

چکیده

بسیاری هوگو گروسیوس را پدر حقوق بین‏ الملل خوانده‏ اند. می‏ توان گفت رسالة حقوق جنگ و صلح او مبیّن نظریة عمومی حقوق بین‏الملل است. در این پژوهش سعی شده است دیدگاه‌های گروسیوس دربارة رابطة حقوق طبیعی و حقوق موضوعه، جنگ و اخلاق، و نیز ارادة انسان و عدالت طبیعی نقد شود. گروسیوس در هر دو حوزة «حقوق بر جنگ» و «حقوق در جنگ» آرایی ارائه می‏کند که شاید در نگاه نخست برای دوران کنونی کاربردی نباشد، لیکن، واقع امر آن است که آرای او در تحول فلسفة حقوق نقش بسزایی داشته است؛ مضافاً‌ اینکه، با توجه روزافزون حقوق بین‏الملل به حقوق بشر، به‌ویژه طی نیم قرن گذشته، حقوق طبیعی و اخلاق به‌تدریج جایگاهی جدید (هرچند نه دقیقاً مانند گذشته) در نظام حقوق بین ‏الملل یافته است. اگر آرای گرسیوس را در مجموعة اوضاع و احوال زمانِ او بررسی کنیم، بسیاری از انتقادات وارد بر آنچه را او با استناد به مفهوم «تجویز» در زمینة حقوق تخاصم مشروع شمرده است رد می‌کنیم. با چنین رویکردی، حتی می‏توان نخستین رد پاهای صلاحیت جهانی را هم در آرای او یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A review of the law of war and peace from the viewpoint of Hugo Grotius

نویسنده [English]

  • Moosa Moosavi Zonooz

Ph.D. in International Law, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Hugo Grotius has been called by many, the father of international law. His treatise on "the Law of War and Peace; De Jure Belli ac Pacis" is said to contain a general theory of international law. This paper aims at reviewing Grotius' ideas on the relationship between natural law and positive law, war and ethics, as well as human will and natural justice. His perspectives in both "jus ad bellum" and "jus in bello" may at first sight seem obsolete, with no practical uses at the present time. However, the fact is that they have had a major role in the evolution of the philosophy of law. Furthermore, with the increasing relevance of human rights in international law, particularly over the past half century, natural law and ethics are gaining a new stance in the system. Studying Grotius' ideas in the context of the circumstances prevailing in his time, we can dismiss much of the criticism made against what he rendered lawful belligerent rights, through the concept of "permission". Taking this approach, we can even track down the early traces of "universal jurisdiction" in his writings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hugo Grotius
  • law of war and peace
  • Natural Law
  • philosophy of law
  • Positive Law

 

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