نویسنده

دکتری حقوق بین‏الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مادۀ 76 کنوانسیون 1982 حقوق دریاها یکی از پیچیده‏ترین و طویل‏ترین مواد این کنوانسیون است. مادة مزبور مشتمل بر مقررات ماهوی و شکلی دربارۀ نحوۀ تعیین حد خارجی فلات قاره است. تملک فلات قاره به دو سبب فاصله و امتداد طبیعی حاصل می‌‏شود. بنا به ضابطۀ فاصله، محدوده‏ای به عرض 200 مایل دریایی از خط مبدأ دریای سرزمینی به عنوان فلات قارۀ درونی به هر دولت ساحلی تعلق می‏گیرد. اما، بنا به ضابطۀ امتداد طبیعی، چنانچه حاشیۀ قاره در امتداد خطِ ساحلِ دولت ساحلی از محدودۀ 200 مایل دریایی فراتر رود، فلات قارۀ دولت ساحلی تا لبۀ بیرونی حاشیة قاره ادامه می‏یابد که فلات قارۀ بیرونی خوانده می‏شود. برای تعیین حدود خارجی فلات قارۀ بیرونی سلسله‏ای از ضوابط علمی و فنی در مادۀ 76 پیش‏بینی شده است. اعمال این ضوابط توسط دولت ساحلی زیر نظارت کمیسیون حدود فلات قاره در سازمان ملل متحد انجام می‌‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the outer limits of the continental shelf: An examination of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention

نویسنده [English]

  • Sassan Seyrafi

Ph.D. in International Law, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention is one of the longest and most complicated articles of this Convention. The said article contains a set of substantive and procedural provisions regarding the determination of the outer limits of the continental shelf. The basis of entitlement to the continental shelf is distance from the coast or natural prolongation. On the basis of the distance criterion, to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baseline of the territorial sea, each coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf which is termed inner continental shelf. But according to the natural prolongation criterion, if the outer edge of the continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles, then the continental shelf continues to the outer edge of the continental margin which is termed outer continental shelf. In order to determine the outer limits of the outer continental shelf, article 76 provides a series of scientific and technical criteria. Application of these criteria is supervised by the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • article 76 of the law of the Sea Convention
  • commission on the limits of the continental shelf
  • constraint line
  • continental margin
  • formula line
  • inner continental shelf
  • outer continental shelf

 

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