نویسنده

مدرس حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ روابط بین‌الملل

چکیده

در دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری اصحاب دعوی از آزادی در ارائۀ هرگونه دلیل، از جمله ادلۀ شفاهی، مانند شهادت و گواهی کارشناسی برخوردارند. با این‌حال، دیوان با ادلۀ شفاهی ارائه‌شده از سوی اصحاب دعوی با احتیاط ویژه‌ای رفتار کرده و صرفاً در شرایطی برای آنها ارزش اثباتی خاصی قائل شده است. در این مقاله ضمن بررسی آن‌دسته از پرونده‌های مطروحه نزد دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری که در آنها اصحاب دعوی از شاهد یا شاهد کارشناس جهت اثبات ادعاهای خویش بهره گرفته‌اند و ارزش اثباتی آنها در رویۀ این دیوان تشریح و تبیین شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Admissibility and value of witness and expert witness in the case-law of the International Court of Justice

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Hossein Sadat Meidani

Lecturer of International Law, School of International Relations, Iran

چکیده [English]

The parties to a case, before international Court of Justice, do have a broad freedom in presenting evidence, including hearsay evidence such as witness and expert witness. However, the Court will treat such hearsay evidence with particular cautious and only under certain circumstances will accord evidential weight to these documents. This article reviews those cases in which the parties relied on the evidence by witness or expert witness in order to sustain their own cases. The probative value of them is also analysed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • expert witness
  • Evidence
  • international adjudication
  • law of evidence
  • International Court of Justice
  • Proof
  • Witness

- میرعباسی، سید باقر و سادات میدانی، سید حسین، دادرسی‌های بین‌المللی: دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در تئوری و عمل، انتشارات جنگل، چاپ اول 1384، چاپ دوم 1387. چاپ سوم 1389

- میرعباسی، سید باقر و سادات میدانی، سید حسین ، دادرسی‌های بین‌المللی: دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری، مسائل روز، چکیدۀ آراء و اسناد، انتشارات جنگل، چاپ اول 1387 و چاپ دوم 1389

 

-          Alford, N. H., Fact Finding by the World Court, Villanova Law Review, Vol. 4, 1958.

 

-          Crawford, James, Advocacy before the International Court of Justice and Other International Tribunals in State-To-State Cases, in; R. Doak Bishop (ed), The Art of Advocacy in International Arbitration, 2004, p. 32.

 

-          Hudson, Manley O., The Permanent Court of International Justice, 1920-1942, A Treaties.

 

-          Momtaz, Jamchid, Composition of a Legal Team to Appear before the Court, in:  A Dialogue at the Court, Proceedings of the I.C.J./UNITAR Colloquium held on the occasion of the Sixtieth Anniversary of the International Court of Justice, at the Peace Palace on 10 and 11 April 2006, Edited and Published by the Registry of the Court.

 

-          Rosenne, Shabtai, The Law and Practice of the International Court (1920-1996), Vol. III, 1997.

 

-          Watts, Sir Arthur, Burden of Proof, and Evidence before the I.C.J., in; Friedl Weiss (ed), Improving WTO Dispute Settlement Procedures – Issues and lessons from the Practice of other International Courts and Tribunals, 2000.

 

-          A Dialogue at the Court, Proceedings of the ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium held on the Occasion of the Sixtieth Anniversary of the International Court of Justice, at the Peace Palace on 10 and 11 April 2006, Edited and Published by the Registry of the Court, UNITAR.

 

-          Speech by H.E. Judge Rosalyn Higgins, President of the International Court of Justice, to the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly, 2 November 2007. Available here: http://www.icj-cij.org/presscom/files/3/14123.pdf

 

-           

-           

-           

-          Chorzów Factory (Indimnity) (Germany/Poland), Order of 13 September 1928, P.C.I.J. Ser. A, No. 17.

 

-          Eastern Greenland Case, Ser. C, No. 67.

-          Personal Work of Employers, Ser. E, No. 3.

 

-          P.C.I.J. Ser. A, No.13, Yearbook of 1936-1937.

 

-          Corfu Channel, (United Kingdom v. Albania), I.C.J. Reports 1949.

 

-          Rights of Nationals of the United States of America in Morocco, (France v. United States of America), Pleadings, Vol. II, p. 480.

 

-          South West Africa Cases, (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa), Second phase, Pleadings, Vol. VIII.

 

-          Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libya), I.C.J. Reports 1982.

 

-          Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua, I.C.J. Reports 1986.

-          Elettronica Sicula S.P.A, I.C.J. Reports 1989.

 

-          The Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, I.C.J. Reports 2007.

 

-          Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Honduras), Judgement of 8 October 2007.

 

-          Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Judgement of 3 February 2015

 

-          I.C.J. Press Release 2006/10, 16 March 2006. Availabel here: http://www.icj-cij.org/presscom/index.php?pr=996&pt=1&p1=6&p2=1

 

-          International Court of Justcie, Verbatim Record, Public Sitting held on Frieday 17 March 2007, CR 2006/22, p. 10, Avalabile here: www.icj-cij.org .