نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق عمومی‌‌ و بین‌الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانش آموختۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

دولت‌‌ها تابعان اصلی حقوق بین‌الملل هستند. با وجود این، تعریف حقوقی دقیق و مورد اجماعی از "دولت" وجود ندارد. ظاهراً تنها سندی که عناصر تشکیل‌دهندۀ دولت را تعریف می‌کند، «کنوانسیون حقوق و تکالیف دولت‌ها» موسوم به کنوانسیون مونته ویدئو (1933) است که این عناصر را شامل سرزمین معین، جمعیت، حکومت و توانایی برقراری ارتباط با سایر دولت‌ها می‌‌داند. دربارۀ حدود و کیفیات این عناصر سنتی اتفاق‌نظر وجود ندارد. افزایش شمار دولت‌ها به‌ویژه از نیمۀ دوم قرن گذشته تاکنون، به‌رغم فقدان برخی از عناصر یادشده، حاکی از شکل‌گیری معیار‌های جدیدی است که مبتنی بر عنصر قانونی بودن و مشروعیت هستند. این عناصر نوپدید در زمرۀ قواعد آمرۀ حقوق بین‌الملل بوده و شامل شکل‌گیری دولت‌های نوپدید بر مبنای «حق تعیین سرنوشت» و عدم تشکیل دولت‌های تازه‌تأسیس مطابق «قاعدۀ ممنوعیت توسل به زور» هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The evolution of state formation criteria: from effectiveness to legitimacy?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Hossein Ranjbarian 1
  • Mahsa Farahzad 2

1 Associate Professor, Public and International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

States are one of the main subjects of international law. There is no all-agreed definition for the concept of state. The only document that defines the elements of state is the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, known as Montevideo Convention 1933, in which a State as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with other states. There is no agreement on the limits and ambit of such traditional qualifications. The increase in the number of states, especially in the second half of the twentieth century onward, with the absence of some of the above qualifications, indicates the formation of new criteria based on legality and legitimacy. Such novel qualifications are jus cogens rules of international law, including the formation of new states based on the “right of self-determination” and the principle of the prohibition of “use of force’.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Law
  • legality
  • prohibition of use of force
  • Self-determination
  • state
  • legitimacy

بیگدلی، محمد رضا، حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، تهران، انتشارات گنج دانش، چاپ بیست و دوم، 1384

موسی‌زاده، رضا، بایسته‌های حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، تهران، انتشارات میزان، چاپ دوم، زمستان 1382

زارع فر، امین‌اله، تحولات شناسایی دولت‌ها در حقوق بین‌الملل معاصر، رسالۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشگاه تهران، پاییز 1389

 

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