نویسنده

نمایندۀ ایران در آژانس بین‌المللی انرژی اتمی

چکیده

معاهدۀ 2013 تجارت تسلیحات، در پرتو تحول حقوق بین‌الملل به‌خصوص گسترش مسئولیت دولت‌ها، حقوق بشر و حقوق بشردوستانه، نتیجۀ تلاش‌های بین‌المللی برای قاعده‌مند کردن تجارت تسلیحات متعارف در قالب یک معاهدۀ حقوقی الزام‌آور است که پس از شکست کنفرانس‌های دیپلماتیک 2012 و 2013 سازمان ملل متحد و نهایتاً با تصمیم مجمع عمومی تبدیل به یک معاهده شد. یکی از مهم‌ترین عناصر معاهدات تسلیحاتی روش‌های راستی‌آزمایی پایبندی دولت‌های عضو مقررات به آنهاست. هدف پژوهش حاضر این است که در عین بررسی روند تدوین معاهدۀ تجارت تسلیحات به این سؤال پاسخ دهد که آیا روش‌های مناسبی برای راستی‌آزمایی پایبندی تعهدات دولت‌‌های عضو به مقررات معاهدۀ 2013 تجارت تسلیحات پیش‌بینی شده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The 2013 Arms Trade Treaty and its verification methods

نویسنده [English]

  • Reza Najafi

PhD, Iran's Ambassador and Permanent Envoy to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

چکیده [English]

The 2013 Arms Trade Treaty, in the light of development in states’ responsibilities, human rights law and humanitarian law, is the result of international efforts for regulating conventional arms trade in the form of a legally binding treaty which after the failure of the 2012 and 2013 diplomatic conferences and finally by a General Assembly decision turned into a treaty. One of the most important elements of arms treaties is the verification methods for compliance of the states parties to their obligations. The aim of the present article, while reviewing the process of the conclusion of the Arms Trade Treaty, is to answer this question: are there proper methods to verify the compliance of the states parties with the 2013 Arms Trade Treaty provisions?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arms Trade Treaty
  • conventional arms
  • Humanitarian law
  • human rights
  • Reporting
  • Verification

-          Acheson, Ray,(2012) “Demanding more from an arms trade treaty”, ARMS TRADE TREATY MONITOR, Vol. 5, No. 18,New York.

-          Brehm, Maya (2005), CONVENTIONAL ARMS TRANSFERS IN THE LIGHT OF HUMANITARIAN AND HUMAN RIGHTS LAW, Thesis in International Humanitarian Law, University Centre for International Humanitarian Law (UCIHL/ CUDIH), Geneva.

-          Bromley, Mark, Dr Paul Holtom, Dr Sam Perlo-Freeman, Pieter D. Wezeman,(2009) “RECENT TRENDS IN THE ARMS TRADE”, SIPRI Background Paper, Stockholm .

-          Burns, Richard Dean(1993), Encyclopedia of Arms Control and Disarmament,  Volume III, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.

-          Cooper , Neil ) 2012(, “The Arms Trade Treaty in the Context of Post-Cold War Conventional Arms Trade Regulation”, the Trust for Research and Education on the Arms Trade and the British Academy , www.caat.org.uk,visited 19 December 2012.

-          Duque , Sara(2012), The influence of NGOs in the Arms Trade Treaty Process as a Global Governance Issue, Master Thesis, UPPSALA UNIVERSITY, Supervisor: Charles Parker, p. 27.

-          Gillis, Melissa(2012), Disarmament: A Basic Guide, Third Edition, United Nations, New York.

-          Grimmett, R. F. and Kerr, P. K.,(2012) “Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011”, Congressional Research Service, August 2012. www.fas.org/, visited 19 December 2012

-          Kirkham, Elizabeth(2012), “The 2012 Arms Trade Treaty Negotiations Controversy, Compromise and Disappointment”, Saferworld, London, UK. www.saferworld.org.uk/, visited 19 December 2012.

-          Parker, Sarah(2007), Analysis of States' Views on an Arms Treaty, UNIDIR, Switzerland.

-          Prizeman(a), Katherine,(2012) “ARMS TRADE TREATY”, FIRST COMMITTEE MONITOR, No.2, New York.

-          Prizeman(b), Katherine(2012), “Not losing sight of objectivity and purpose”, ARMS TRADE TREATY MONITOR, Vol. 5, No. 17,New York.

-          Stohl, Rachel(2012), “U.S. Policy and the Arms Trade Treaty”, CHATHAM HOUSE, Project Ploughshares, Canada,  ploughshares.ca/ , visited 19 December .

-           - , “ARMS TRADE TREATY: global controls for a global trade”,(2009) the Control Arms Campaign, Instituto Sou da Paz, Brazil.

-           - ,   ARMS TRADE TREATY MONITOR Vol. 5, No. 1,,(2012) Civil society perspectives on the Arms Trade Treaty negotiation process, New York.

-           - ,  ARMS TRADE TREATY MONITOR Vol. 5, No. 16,(2012) Civil society perspectives on the Arms Trade Treaty negotiation process, New York.

-          - ,  “U.S. Views on Illicit Trade in Conventional Weapons”,The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 100, No. 4(Oct., 2006), pp. 957-958.

-          - ,  The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, Volume 36 (Part II):2011,(2012), United Nations Publications, New York .

-          - , HOW TO APPLY HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS TO ARMS TRANSFER DECISIONS, (2008) Amnesty International Publications,United Kingdom.