نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد روابط بین‌الملل از دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

متعاقب تأسیس شورای حقوق بشر سازمان ملل متحد در سال 2006، وضعیت حقوق بشر در عربستان سعودی در موارد متعددی مورد توجه شورا قرار گرفته است. در این زمینه، ابتدا به نظام بررسی دوره‌ای جهانی می‌پردازیم و سپس بررسی دوره‌ای عربستان در دو دورۀ سال‌های 2009 و 2013 را تشریح می‌کنیم. در این راستا توصیه‌های کشورهای دیگر به عربستان و پاسخ‌های عربستان به آن توصیه‌ها بیان می‌شود. سپس به گزارش‌های گزارشگران ویژه در سال‌های 2008 تا 2014 می‌پردازیم. در بررسی خود از این گزارش‌ها می‌کوشیم موضوعاتی را بیان کنیم که گزارشگران ویژه در زمینۀ وضعیت حقوق بشر در عربستان بیان کرده‌اند. این گزارش‌ها، گستره‌ای وسیع از موضوعات حقوق بشری از جمله بازداشت‌های خودسرانه، آزادی مذهب، خشونت علیه زنان، حقوق بشر مهاجران، ناپدیدی اجباری یا غیرارادی، وضعیت مدافعان حقوق بشر، شکنجه و سایر رفتارهای بی‌رحمانه، غیرانسانی یا تحقیرآمیز و همچنین آزادی اندیشه و بیان را شامل می‌شود

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The United Nations Human Rights Council and the situation of human rights in Saudi Arabia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Ali Sadat Akhavi 1
  • Abbas Khodashenas 2

1 Assistant Professor, International Relations Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 MSc. of International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Pursuant to the establishment of the united nation human rights council, human rights situation in Saudi Arabia has been considered and evaluated in many cases. First we are going to study on the universal periodic review and then we will examine the periodic review outcome reports of Saudi Arabia in the years 2009 and 2003. In these reports we will read recommendation of other countries and the replies presented by the state. After that we will proceed to study on the reports of special rapporteurs. Such reports incorporate many human rights cases like: false arrests, freedom of religion, violence against women, refugees’ rights, forced disappearance, human rights activists’ situations, torture and other inhuman or degrading treatments and freedom of expression and thought.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • human rights
  • Human Rights Council
  • Saudi Arabia
  • special rapporteurs
  • United Nations
  • universal periodic review

  • خرازی،فردین، "بررسی تطبیقی گزارش‌های دوره‌ای عربستان سعودی و کانادا در شورای حقوق بشر"، پژوهشنامۀ روابط بین‌الملل، شمارۀ 44، بهمن1388.

ب: منابع انگلیسی

1. General Assembly, Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/60/L.48)]. 60/251. Human Rights Council, UN Doc, A/RES/60/251, 3 April 2006.

2. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working on the Universal Periodic Review -Saudi Arabia, UN Doc, A/HRC/11/23, 4 March 2009.

3. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review-Saudi Arabia.  Addendum:Views on conclusions and/or recommendations, voluntary commitments and replies presented by the State under review, UN Doc, A/HRC/11/23/Add.1, 9 June 2009.

4. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review-Saudi Arabia, UN Doc, A/HRC/25/3,  26 December 2013.

5. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention. Addendum:Opinions adopted by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention-Chair-Rapporteur: El Hadji Malick Sow, UN Doc, A/HRC/16/47/Add.1, 2 March 2011.

6. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention. Addendum :Opinions adopted by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detentio, UN Doc, A/HRC/22/44/ADD.1, 18 December 2012.

7. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention. Addendum:Opinions adopted by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention at its sixty-sixth, sixty-seventh and sixty-eighth sessions, UN Doc, A/HRC/27/48/Add.1, 25 June 2014.

8. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Asma Jahangir.Addendum:Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received, UN Doc, A/HRC/7/10/Add.1, 28 February 2008.

9. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Asma Jahangir.Addendum:SUMMARY OF CASES TRANSMITTED TO GOVERNMENTS AND REPLIES RECEIVED, UN Doc, A/HRC/10/8/Add.1, 16 February 2009.

10. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Heiner Bielefeldt. Addendum:Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received, UN Doc, A/HRC/16/53/Add.1, 14 February 2011.

11. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Ertürk. Addendum: Mission to Saudi Arabia, UN Doc, A/HRC/11/6/Add.3, 14 April 2009.

12. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Jorge Bustamante. Addendum:Communications to and from Governments, UN Doc, A/HRC/17/33/Add.1, 17 May 2011.

13. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, UN Doc, A/HRC/27/49, 2 August 2014.

14. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Margaret Sekaggya. Addendum:Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received, UN Doc, A/HRC/13/22/Add.1, 24 February 2010.

15. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Manfred Nowak. Addendum:Summary of information, including individual cases, transmitted to Governments and replies received, UN Doc, A/HRC/13/39/Add.1, 25 February 2010.

16. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez. Addendum:Summary of information, including individual cases, transmitted to Governments and replies received. UN Doc, A/HRC/16/52/Add.1, 1 March 2011.

17. Human Rights Council,Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez. Addendum :Observations on communications transmitted to Governments and replies received. UN Doc, A/HRC/22/53/Add.4, 12 March 2013.

18. Human Rights Council,  Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez. Addendum :Observations on communications transmitted to Governments and replies received. UN Doc, A/HRC/28/68/Add.1, 5 March 2015.

19. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez .Addendum :Observations on communications transmitted to Governments and replies received, A/HRC/19/61/Add.4, 29 February 2012.

20. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue. Addendum:Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received, UN Doc, A/HRC/14/23/Add.1, 1 June 2010.

21. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue. Addendum:Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received, UN Doc, A/HRC/17/27/Add.1, 27 May 2011.

22. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns . Addendum:Observations on communications transmitted to Governments and replies received, UN Doc, A/HRC/20/22/Add.4, 18 june 2012.

23. Universal Periodic Review Second Cycle - Saudi Arabia.at.

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/SASession17.aspx.  Calendar of reviews for the 2ndcycle (2012 to 2016)

24. Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council.at.

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/SP/Pages/Introduction.aspx

ج: منابع عربی

1. مجلس حقوق الإنسان، تقریر الفریق العامل المعنی بالاستعراض الدوری الشامل-المملکة العربیة السعودیة.إضافة:آراء بشأن الاستنتاجات و/أو التوصیات والالتزامات الطوعیة والردود المقدمة من الدولة موضوع الاستعراض، وثیقة الأمم المتحدة،A/HRC/25/3/Add.1،28 February 2014.