نویسنده

استادیار دانشگاه دانشگاه حضرت معصومه (س)

چکیده

طبق مقررات لاهه 1907 حق متخاصمان در استفاده از تسلیحات و ابزارهایشان در جنگ‌ها نامحدود نیست. ارتقای روزانة فناوری تسلیحاتی و نظامی ایجادکنندگان پروتکل اول 1977 کنوانسیون‌های ژنو 1949 را بر آن داشت تا با اختصاص ماده‌ای دول عضو پروتکل را به بازبینی حقوقی تسلیحات جدیدشان مجبور و آن‌ها را به تطبیق تسلیحات جدیدشان با تعهدات بین‌المللی خود ملزم کنند؛ زیرا دولت‌ها از اواخر قرن نوزدهم طبق معاهدات گوناگون و قواعد عرفی بین‌المللی خود را متعهد به عدم تولید یا استفاده از سلاح‌های خاصی کرده‌اند اما تا قبل از انعقاد پروتکل اول 1977 ساز‌و‌کار مشخصی برای تطبیق تسلیحات دولت‌ها با تعهدات بین‌المللی آن‌ها وجود نداشت. پروتکل اول با ایجاد مادة 36 روند این کار را آغاز کرد و ایجاد رویه و فرایند این کار را به خود دولت‌ها واگذاشت. به سبب مشکلاتی که در اجرای این ماده وجود دارد تاکنون فقط شش دولت بسترسازی مناسبی برای اجرایی کردن مادة 36 ایجاد کرده‌اند و بقیة دولت‌ها دربارة اجرای این ماده اقدامی انجام نداده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Obligations of states to legal assessment of new weapons in international law

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Hesamaldin Lesani

Assistant Professor, Hazrat-e- Masumeh University, Iran

چکیده [English]

According to 1907 Hague Regulations, the right of belligerents to adopt weapons and methods of warfare is not unlimited. All States have obligations to ban or restrict certain weapons under International Agreements and International Customary Law. The reality of everyday developments in military and weapons technology led the founders of the 1977 Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions (1944) to designate an Article with the purpose of obliging member States into legal assessment of their new weapons. Hence, Article 36 of Additional Protocol I (1977) of the Geneva Conventions (1944) indicates that States must determine whether new weapons, means or methods of warfare they intend to study, develop, acquire or adopt comply with the rules of International Law applicable to them. However, the practical aspects of the said review mechanism are not clear. As a result, to this date only six States have attempted to apply Article 36. Examining the practice of the aforementioned countries will help other States to fulfill their obligation of legal review of their modern weapons.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Article 36
  • distinction between civilians and combatants distinction between civilians and combatants
  • first protocol 1977
  • International Humanitarian law
  • legal review of weapons
  • new weapons

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