نویسندگان

1 گروه حقوق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد نجف‌آباد، نجف‌آباد، ایران

2 گروه حقوق، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، دانشیار دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

قرن 21 آغاز تحول در یکی از حوزه‌های حقوق بین‌الملل یعنی حقوق مخاصمات مسلحانه است. دسترسی به سلاح‌های جدید، پیشرفت تکنولوژی و توسل به ترفندهای امروزی سبب شده است نه‌ تنها پدیدۀ شوم مخاصمه به کلی از چارچوب حقوق بین‌الملل رخت برنبندد، بلکه با بروز تحولات اخیر بر پیچیدگی‌های آن افزوده شد. در حقوق بین‌الملل سنتی، اصل بر وجود مخاصمه در روابط بین دولت‌ها بود که پس از روبه‌روشدن با تحولات به‌وجود‌آمده و با متأثرشدن از اسناد حقوقی مختلف بعدی به صورت یک استثنا درآمد و با توسعۀ چشمگیر تکنولوژی، مخاصمات و اشکال آن سریع‌تر از تحول مفاهیم حقوقی در این حوزه تغییر شکل داد. تحول مفهومی در توسل به زور نه تنها مفاهیم و اصول بنیادین مخاصمه را دستخوش تغییراتی کرده، که با به چالش‌کشاندن شاکله‌‌های مخاصمۀ سنتی، طرح مباحثی مثل ضرورت تفکیک، مشروعیت و قانونمندی این اقدامات را مطرح کرده ‌است. در این مقاله درصددیم با تحلیل مفهومی جنگ سایبری به امکان تسری قواعد حاکم بر مخاصمات مسلحانۀ سنتی بر فضای مجازی و خلأهای حقوقی آن بپردازیم. چون این امر بدون تأمل در رویۀ بین‌المللی میسر نیست، به مطالعۀ حملات گرجستان (2008) به‌منزلۀ مطالعۀ موردی می‌پردازیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Cyber-attacks and the Principles of International Humanitarian Law (Case Study: Cyber-attacks on Georgia)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parastou Esmailzadeh Mollabashi 1
  • Mohsen Abdollahi 2
  • Seyed Ghasem Zamani 3

1 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Najafabad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

21st century is the beginning of change in one of the areas of International Law namely the law of armed conflicts. Access to new weapons, technological developments and resorting to today’s tactics, not only lead the insidious phenomenon of war to be totally departed from International Law but by some recent changes, more complexities are added. The conflict and its forms that were primarily being accepted in traditional international law as a principle in International Relations and in the light of subsequent developments of various legal instruments were accepted as an exception in states relations, with the development of technology, have been transformed significantly faster than the conceptual evolution in rights and obligations. Conceptual evolution in the use of force not only has changed the fundamental concepts and principles of conflict but also the elements of traditional conflict and propounded subjects including principle of distinction, legality and legitimacy. With analyzing the concept of cyber warfare, we intend to assess the possibility of extending the rules governing traditional armed conflicts to cyberspace and evaluating its legal limitations. Since this matter would not be possible without concentrating on international practice, cyber-attacks on Georgia will be examined as a case study. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Armed Conflict
  • Cyber Warfare
  • principle of distinction
  • Principle of Proportionality
  • Principle of Neutrality
  • Principle of Military Necessity
  • Georgia

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