نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران

2 استادیار گروه حقوق بین‌الملل و عمومی، پردیس فارابی، دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران

چکیده

هیچ‌یک از اسناد بین‌المللی حقوق بشر و اکثر قوانین داخلی، به‌صراحت حق مرگ را شناسایی نکرده‌اند، با این حال، در دیوان اروپایی حقوق بشر و حتی برخی محاکم ملی، ذیل سایر حقوق و آزادی‌های دیگر مندرج در این اسناد، افراد مدعی دارابودن چنین حقی شده‌اند که بعضاً این دعاوی شناسایی حق مذکور و تغییر قوانین ملی را در پی داشته‌‌اند. نوشتار پیش‌رو درصدد پاسخ به این پرسش است که آیا در رویۀ دیوان، با تأکید بر کنوانسیون اروپایی حقوق بشر که برای این مرجع، منبع حق و تکلیف است، حقی موسوم به حق مرگ برای افراد به رسمیت شناخته شده است یا خیر؟ و در این میان، اختیار دولت‌ها برای محدودکردن حقوق و آزادی‌هایی که درحقیقت، اساس و بنیان حق مرگ محسوب می‌شوند، تا کجاست؟

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Right to Die in International Human Rights Instruments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sarvenaz Mostafizi 1
  • Mahdi Balavi 2

1 MA. in International Law, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Department of Public and International Law, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

None of the international human rights instruments and most domestic laws have explicitly recognized the right to death. However, in the European Court of Human Rights and even some domestic Courts, according to other rights and freedoms in these documents, individuals claim to have this right and sometimes these claims lead to the recognition of this right and the change of national law. This article seeks to answer the question of whether the right to die for people has been recognized in the precedent of European Court, with the emphasis on the European Convention on Human Rights, which is the source of the right and duty for this Court. In the meantime, to what extent do governments have the power to restrict the rights and freedoms that are in fact the foundation of the right to die?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Principle of Subsidiarity
  • Right to Privacy
  • Right to Die
  • Margin of Appreciation Doctrine
  • European Court of Human Rights

. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

مسجدی، محمدحسن و مهدیان‌صدر، مطهره‌سادات (1393). دیوان اروپایی حقوق بشر و حق بر حریم خصوصی و زندگی خانوادگی، تهران: انتشارات تیسا.

والاس، ربکا و ارتگا، مارتین (1392). حقوق بین‌الملل، ترجمۀ سیدقاسم زمانی و مهناز بهراملو، تهران: مؤسسۀ مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.

ب) مقالات

سادات‌اخوی، سیدعلی (1384). «پروتکل شمارۀ 14 و اصلاح نظام نظارتی کنوانسیون اروپایی حقوق بشر»، مجلۀ دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، شمارۀ 70، 213-228.

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

Christoffersen. J (2009). Fair Balance: Proportionality, Subsidiarity and Primarity in the European Convention on Human Rights, Leiden- Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publications.

Greer. Steven (2006). The European Convention on Human Rights: Achievements, Problems and Prospects, New York, Cambridge University Press.

B) Articles

Carozza. Paolo G (2003). "Subsidiarity as a Structural principle of International Human Rights Law", American Journal of International Law, Vol. 97, No. 1, pp 38-79.

Cassese. Sabino. (2015). "Ruling Indirectly: Judicial Subsidiarity in the ECtHR", Paper for the seminar on Subsidiarity: A Double Sided Coin? 1. The Role of the Convention Mechanism; 2.The Role of National Authorities.

De Santis Di Nikola, Francesco (2011). "Principle of Subsidiarity and Embeddedness of the European Convention on Human Rights in the Field of Reasonable-Time Requirement: The Italian Case", Jurisprudence, Vol. 18, No.1. pp 7-32.

Wildhaber, Luzius (2007). "The European Court of Human rights: The Past, The Present, The Future", The American University International Law Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 521-538.

C) Documents & Conventions

European Convention on Human Rights 1950.

International Convention on Psychotropic Substances 197.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966.

Protocol No. 11 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, restructuring the control machinery 1998.

Recommendation 1418 (1999). of the parliamentary assembly of the council of Europe, para 9.

The Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 2012/C 326/01, art 5(3).

D) Codes

Criminal code of Switzerland 1942.

England and Wales Suicide act 1961.

France Act of 22 April 2005 on patients’ rights and end-of-life issues.

France Public Health Code 2009.

French Code of Medical Ethics 2013.

German Bsic Law 1871.

German Narcotics Act 2009.

Switzerland medical ethics guidelines on the care of patients at the end of life which were adopted on 25 November 2005 by the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (SAMS).

Switzerland professional medical conduct code (aus standesrechtlichen Gründen) 2003.

E) Cases

Cologne Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgericht), judgment of 21 February 2006.

Federal Constitutional Court judgment of 4 November 2008 (Bundesverfassungsgericht, no. 1 BvR 1832/07).

Judgment of 14 May 2013 in the case of Gross v. Switzerland, application no. 67810/10.

Judgment of 19 July 2012 in the case of Koch v. Germany, application no. 497/09.

Judgment of 20 January 2011 in the case Haas v. Switzerland, application no. 31322/07, in French.

Judgment of 29 April 2002 in the case of Dian pretty v. the United Kingdom, application number no. 2346/02.

Judgment of 5 June 2015 in the case of Vincent Lambert and others v. France, application no. 46034/14.

R v Director of Public prosecutions (Respondent), ex parte Diane Pretty (Appellant) & secretary of state for the Home Department (Interested Party) [2001] UKHL 61.

Rodriguez v. the Attorney General of Canada, [1994] 2 Law Reports of Canada 136.

F) Websits

http://www.echr.coe.int/.

http://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/home.

http://www.dignitas.ch/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=56&Itemid=90&lang=en.