نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی-واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

دولت زیان‌دیده از عمل متخلفانۀ بین‌المللی می‌تواند به مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت مرتکب آن عمل استناد کند. حتی دولت غیر از دولت زیان‌دیده نیز می‌تواند در مواردی که تعهد نقض‌شده ماهیت عام‌الشمول (erga omnes) داشته باشد، به مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت ناقض تعهد استناد کند. براساس طرح پیش‌نویس مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت‌ها (2001)، استناد به‌منزلۀ اقدامی ‌با خصیصۀ نسبتاً رسمی و متمایز از مفاهیمی همچون اعتراض یا انتقاد است و منشأ و ماهیت تعهد نقض‌شده بر امکان استناد بی‌تأثیر است. برای استناد به مسئولیت بین‌المللی هیچ مهلت زمانی مدنظر نیست، اما دولت خوانده می‌تواند عدم استناد را به‌منزلۀ مبنایی برای اعراض از آن اثبات کند. دولت زیان‌دیده باید ادعای خود را به دولت مسئول اعلام کند و هنگامی‌که دولت استنادکننده براساس حمایت دیپلماتیک اقدام می‌کند، باید قاعدۀ تابعیت دعاوی و قاعدۀ طی مقدماتی مراجع داخلی را نیز رعایت کند. نوشتار حاضر می‌کوشد با روشن‌کردن مفهوم استناد، جایگاه آن را در حوزۀ حقوق مسئولیت بین‌المللی و در روابط میان دولت‌ها تبیین کند.   

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Concept of Invocation to International Responsibility with Emphasis on the Draft Articles of International Law Commission (2001)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Mohebi 1
  • Vahid Bazzar 2

1 Associate Prof., Science and Research Branch of Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student of International Law, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The injured State from an internationally wrongful act can invoke to the international responsibility of the State that committed it. Even State other than an injured State may invoke to the international responsibility of the State which breached obligation in cases where the nature of the breached obligation is erga omnes. According to Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts 2001, an invocation is an act with a relatively formal character and distinctive than concepts such as protest or criticism and the origin and nature of the breached obligation don't affect on the possibility of invocation. Any deadline is not determined for the invocation to international responsibility, but the defendant State can prove non-invocation as the basis for waiver. The injured State must declare to responsible State its claim and when invoking State is acting on the basis of diplomatic protection, it must respect the rule of the nationality of claims and rule of exhaustion of local remedies. This article, by clarifying the concept of invocation, attempts to determine the position of it in the realm of responsibility international law and relations between States.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • invocation
  • Erga Omnes
  • Injured State
  • State other than an Injured State
  • International Responsibility of State

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

محبی، محسن (1394). مباحثی از حقوق نفت و گاز، چاپ سوم، تهران: شهر دانش.

---------- (1392). مسئولیت و جبران خسارت در تجارت الکترونیک در پرتو تحلیل اقتصادی حقوق، جامعۀ بین‌المللی و حقوق بین‌الملل در قرن بیست و یکم، مجموعه مقالات اهدایی به استاد دکتر محمدرضا ضیایی‌بیگدلی، تهران: شهر دانش.

ب) مقاله‌ها

حدادی، مهدی (1389). «استناد به مسئولیت دولت ناشی از نقض تعهدات عام‌الشمول»، مجلۀ حقوقی بین‌المللی، سال 27، شمارۀ 42، 89-124.

زمانی، سیدقاسم (1395). «واگرایی و همگرایی «مسئولیت کیفری فردی» و «مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت»: تأملی در اوراق پروندۀ جنگ شیمیایی عراق علیه ایران»، فصل‌نامۀ پژوهش حقوق عمومی، سال 18، شمارۀ 51، 9-27.

عزیزی، ستار و حاجی، محمد (1395). «احراز مسئولیت دولت درخصوص ارتکاب ژنوسید در تقابل یا تعامل با روند عدالت انتقالی»، مجلۀ مطالعات حقوقی، دورۀ 8، شمارۀ 2، 147-182.

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

Albers, Jan (2015). Responsibility and Liability in the Context of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes by Sea: Existing Rules and the 1999 Liability Protocol to the Basel Convention, Springer Heidelberg Publishing.

Aust, Anthony (2005). Handbook of International Law, Cambridge University Press.

Benlolo Carabot, Myriam & Ubeda-Saillard, Muriel (2010). Functional Protection, The Law of International Responsibility-edited by James Crawford, Alain Pellet, and Simon Olleson, Oxford University Press.

Boas, Gideon (2012). Public International Law-Contemporary Principles and Perspectives, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Craven, Matthew (2004). For the ‘Common Good’: Rights and Interests in the Law of State Responsibility, Issues of State Responsibility before International Judicial Institutions- edited by Malgosia Fitzmaurice and Dan Sarooshi, Hart Publishing.

Douglas, Zachary (2009). The International Law of Investment Claims, Cambridge University Press.

Dugard, John (2010). Diplomatic Protection, The Law of International Responsibility, edited by James Crawford, Alain Pellet, and Simon Olleson, Oxford University Press.

Gaja, Giorgio (2010). The Concept of an Injured State,The Law of International Responsibility, edited by James Crawford, Alain Pellet, and Simon Olleson, Oxford University Press.

Gallagher, Anne T (2010). The International Law of Human Trafficking, Cambridge University Press.

Huesa Vinaixa, Rosario (2010). Plurality of Injured State,The Law of International Responsibility, edited by James Crawford, Alain Pellet, and Simon Olleson, Oxford University Press.

McGoldrick, Dominic (2004). State Responsibility and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Issues of State Responsibility before International Judicial Institutions-edited by Malgosia Fitzmaurice and Dan Sarooshi, Hart Publishing.

Peel, Jacqueline (2010). Notice of Claim by an Injured State, The Law of International Responsibility, edited by James Crawford, Alain Pellet, and Simon Olleson, Oxford University Press.

Rosenne, Shabtai (2005). Decisions of the International Court of Justice and the New Law of State Responsibility, International Responsibility Today-Essays in Memory of Oscar Schachter, edited by Maurizio Ragazzi, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Roscini, Marco (2014). Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law, Oxford University Press.

Shaw, Malcolm N (2008). International Law, Cambridge University Press, Sixth edition.

Stern, Brigitte (2005). A Plea for ‘Reconstruction’ of International Responsibility Based on the Notion of Legal Injury, International Responsibility Today-Essays in Memory of Oscar Schachter, edited by Maurizio Ragazzi, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Tams, Christian J. (2010). Waiver, Acquiescence, and Extinctive Prescription, The Law of International Responsibility, edited by James Crawford, Alain Pellet, and Simon Olleson, Oxford University Press.

Thirlway, Hugh (2005). Injured and Non-Injured States before the International Court of Justice, International Responsibility Today-Essays in Memory of Oscar Schachter, edited by Maurizio Ragazzi, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Uffman-Kirsch, Lisa B. (2014). The Prevention Principle-A new theory for invocation ofstate responsibility for marine environmental harm, Master Thesis Master Programme in Public International Law Utrecht University.

Vaurs-Chaumette, Anne-Laure (2010). The International Community as a whole, The Law of International Responsibility-edited by James Crawford, Alain Pellet, and Simon Olleson, Oxford University Press.

Vermeer-Kunzil, Annemarieke (2014). Invocation of Responsibility, Principle of Shared Responsibilityin International Law-edited by Andre Nollkaemper and Ilias Plakokefalos, Cambridge University Press.

Verheyen, Roda (2005). Climate Change Damage and International Law-Prevention Duties and State Responsibility, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

 

B) Articles

Brown Weiss, Edith (2002). "Invoking State Responsibility in the Twenty-First Century", The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 96.

Crawford, James (2002). "The ILC's Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts: A Retrospect", The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 96, No. 4.

Satkauskas, Rytis (2003). "A Bill for the Occupants or an Issue to Negotiate: the Claims of Reparations for Soviet Occupation", Baltic Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 3.

Scobbie, Iain (2002). "The Invocation of Responsibility for the Breach of Obligations under Peremptory Norms of General International Law", European Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, No. 5.