نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مفهوم «نگرانی­های مشترک بشری» از دهۀ 1990 میلادی در حوزۀ حقوق بین‌الملل محیط زیست پدیدار شد و هدف از طرح آن یافتن راهی برای رویارویی با مشکلات زیست‌محیطی جهانی و همچنین پاسخگویی به اختلافات برخاسته از مفهوم «میراث مشترک بشریت» میان دولت­ها بود. سپس این مفهوم از زمینه­های اصلی خود همچون تنوع زیستی و تغییر اقلیم، فراتر رفت و مصداق‌های دیگری از این‌گونه نگرانی‌های مشترک مطرح شدند. در این نوشتار، ضمن شناخت ابعاد و عناصر نگرانی‌های مشترک بشری، جایگاه این مفهوم در حقوق بین‌الملل، به­ویژه در کالبد اصول اساسی حقوق بین‌الملل محیط زیست و تعهدات جامعۀ بین­المللی در کل بررسی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

“Common Concerns of Humankind”: From the Emergence to Evolution in International Environmental Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shima Arab Asadi 1
  • Amir Hossein Ranjbarian 2

1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

2 Associate Prof., Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The concept of “Common Concerns of Humankind” has emerged in the context of international environmental law in the 1990s. It was set forth in order to find a way to deal with global environmental challenges as well as to address disputes arising between States over the concept of “Common Heritage of Humanity”. Then, the concept went beyond its original contexts, namely biodiversity and climate change, and led to other instances of common concerns to be discussed. In this article, while recognizing the scope and elements of Common Concerns of Humankind, the position of this concept in international law, especially in the framework of the basic principles of international environmental law and the erga omnes obligations, will be examined.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Community
  • Common Interests
  • Common Heritage of Mankind
  • Global Environment
  • Common Concerns of Humankind
  • international cooperation

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

  1. جمالی، حمیدرضا (1390). میراث مشترک بشریت، مفهوم و کاربرد آن در حقوق بین‌الملل: اصول حاکم بر کاربرد میراث مشترک بشریت، تهران: فرهنگ شناسی.
  2. شاو، ملکم (1392). حقوق بین‌الملل محیط زیست، ترجمۀ علی مشهدی و حسن خسروشاهی، تهران: خرسندی.
  3. موسوی، فضل‌الله (1394). حقوق بین‌الملل محیط زیست، چ دوم، تهران: میزان.
  4. جمالی، حمیدرضا (1388). «نقد نظریۀ تاریخی حاکمیت در پرتو مفهوم میراث مشترک بشر»، فصلنامۀ تحقیقات سیاسی و بین‌المللی، ش 3، ص 128-101.
  5. -------------- (1389). «محیط زیست بین‌المللی و میراث مشترک بشریت»، فصلنامه تحقیقات سیاسی و بین‌المللی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرضا، ش 4، ص 149-119.
  6. جمالی، حمیدرضا (1389). «میراث مشترک بشریت: مفهوم و کاربرد آن در حقوق بین‌الملل»، فصلنامۀ پژوهش حقوق و سیاست، سال دوازدهم، ش 31، ص 92-57.
  7. حبیب‌زاده، توکل، منصوری، فرنگیس (1392). «بازخوانی اصل میراث مشترک بشریت و تفاوت‌های آن با مفهوم نگرانی مشترک بشریت»، پژوهشنامۀ حقوق اسلامی، سال 14، ش 2(پیاپی 38)، ص 120-91.
  8. رنجبریان، امیرحسین، ارغنده­پور، نفیسه (1391). «پدیدۀ دولت­های در حال غرق: چاره­اندیشی از نظرگاه حقوق بین­الملل»، مجلۀ حقوقی بین­المللی، سال 29، ش 46، ص 124-83.
  9. طلایی، فرهاد، منصوری، فرنگتاج (1385)، «نگرشی جدید به وضعیت حقوقی قطب جنوب: قطب جنوب به‌عنوان میراث مشترک بشریت»، فصلنامۀ مدرس علوم انسانی، دورۀ 10، ش 3، 1385، ص 125-97.
  10. عباسی، بیژن؛ رستمی، مرتضی (1394). «ابعاد حقوقی میراث مشترک بشریت در فضای ماورای جو»، مجلۀ مطالعات حقوقی دانشگاه شیراز، دورۀ 7، ش 2، ص 59- 27.
  11. Birnie, Patricia and Boyle, Alan (2009). International Law and the Environment, Oxford University Press.
  12. Bodansky, Daniel; Brunnée, Jutta and Hey, Ellen (2007). the Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law, Oxford University Press.
  13. Halewood, Michael; Lépez Noreig, Isabel, and Louafi, Selim (eds.) (2013). Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons, Routledge: Oxon.
  14. Hunter, David; Salzman, James, and Zaelke, Durwood (2002). International Environmental Law and Policy, Second Edition, Foundation Press.
  15. Koen De Feyter, Koen (2013). Globalization and Common Responsibilitis of States, Ashgate Publishing Company.
  16. Starke, Joseph Gabriel and Shearer, Ivan (1994). Starke’s International Law, Butterworth, 11th ed.
  17. Trindade, Antônio Augusto Cançado (2010). construction of the international law for humankind Towards a new jus gentium, General Course on Public International Law, the Hague academy of international law.
  18. Adami, Edward French (1990). “Opening Address” in David Attard (ed), The Meeting of the Group of Legal Experts toExamine the Concept of the Common Concern of Mankind in Relation to GlobalEnvironmental Issues.
  19. Barbosa, Julio (1990). “Conclusions of the Meeting”, in David Attard (ed), The Meeting of the Group of Legal Experts to Examine the Concept of the Common Concern of Mankind in Relation to Global Environmental Issues.
  20. Beitz, Charles (2001). “Human Rights as a Common Concern”, American Political Science Review 95/2.
  21. Boer, Ben (1995). “Institutionalizing Ecologically Sustainable Development: The Role of National, State and Local Governments in Translating Grand Strategy into Action” 31 Willamette Law Review.
  22. Bowling, Chelsea, Pierson, Elizabeth, Ratte, Estephanie, (2016). “The Common Concern of Humankind: A Potential Framework for a New International Legally Binding Instrument on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity in the High Seas”, Available at:
  23. Boyle, Alan (1991). “International Law and the Protection of the Global Atmosphere: Concepts, Categories and Principles”, in Robin Churchill and David Freestone, (eds) International Law and Global Climate Change, Graham & Trotman.
  24. Boyle, Alan (1991). “Saving the world? Implementation and enforcement of international environmental law through international institutions”, Journal of Environmental law 3.
  25. Brown Weiss, Edith (2012). “The Coming Water Crisis: A Common Concern of Humankind”, Transnational Environmental Law.
  26. Brown Weiss, Edith (2014). “Nature and The Law: The Global Commons And The Common Concern Of Humankind”, Sustainable Humanity, Sustainable Nature: Our Responsibility, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Extra Series 41.

ب) مقالات

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

B) Articles

10.Brunnee, Jutta (2012). “The Global Climate Regime: Wither Common Concern?” in: Holger P. Hestermeyer et.al (eds.) Coexistence, Cooperation and Solidarity , Liber Ami corum for Rüdiger Wolfrum, Vol I, Martinus Nijhoff.

11.Chavarro, Jimena Murillo (2013). "Common Concern of Humankind ans Its Implicationa in International Environmental Law", Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmrntal Law, Vol 5.

12.Cottier, Thomas; Aerni, Philipp; Karapinar, Baris; Matteotti, Sofya; de Sépibus, Joëlle and Shingal, Anirudh (2014). “The Principle of Common Concern and Climate Change”, NCCR Trade Working Paper No 2014/18.

  1. Horn, Laura (2004). “The Implications of the Concept of Common Concern of a Human Kind on a Human Right to a Healthy Environment”, Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law.

14.Horn, Laura (2007). “Globalization, Sustainable Development and the Common Concern of Humankind”, Macquarie Law Journal, Vol 7.

http://www.un.org/depts/los/biodiversity/prepcom_files/BowlingPiersonandRatte_Common_Concern.pdf (last Accesed: 25 January 2017)

15. Kirgis, Frederic L. (1990). “Standing to Challenge Human Endeavours that Could Change the Climate”, AJIL 84.

16.Kiss, Alexandre (2003). “Economic Globalization and the Common Concern of Humanity” in Alexandre Kiss, Dinah Shelton, and Kanami Ishibashi (eds), Economic Globalization and Compliance with International Environmental Agreements, Kluwer Law International.

17. Lodge, W. Michael (2012). “The Common Heritage of Mankind”, the International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 27.

18.Shelton, Dinah (2003). “The Impact of Economic Globalization on Compliance”, in Alexandre Kiss, Dinah Shelton and Kanami Ishibashi (eds), Economic Globalization and Compliance with International Environmental Agreements, Kluwer Law International.

19.Shelton, Dinah (2009). “Common Concern of Humanity”, Iustum Aequum Salutare, V.1.

20.Simma, Bruno (1994). “From Bilateralism to Community Interest in International Law”, Recueil des Cours (RdC250).

21.Stec, Stephen (2010). “Humanitarian Limits to Sovereignty: Common Concern and Common Heritage Approaches to Natural Resources and Environment”, International Community Law Review 12.

22.Timoshenko, Alexandre (1991). “International Legal and Institutional Framework for Global Climate Change” in Toru Iwama (ed), Policies and Laws on Global Warming: International and Comparative Analysis.

23.Tolba, Mostafa K. (1991). "The Implication of the Common Concern of Mankind Concept on Global Environmental IssuesNote to the Group of Legal Experts Meeting of UNEP, Malta, December 13-15, 1990, Revista Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos (Revista IIDH), vol.13.

24.Trindade, Antônio Augusto Cançado (1992). “The Contribution of International Human Rights Law to Environmental Protection, with Special Reference to Global Environmental Change Law” in Edith Brown Weiss (ed), Environmental Change and International Law: New Challenges and Dimensions.

25.Trindade, Antônio Augusto Cançado and Attard, David Joseph (1990). “Report of the Proceedings of the Meeting” in D J Attard (ed), The Meeting of theGroup of Legal Experts to Examine the Concept of the Common Concern of Mankind in Relation to GlobalEnvironmental Issues.

26.Villalpando, Santiago (2010). “the legal dimension of the international community: how community interests are protected in international law”, The European Journal of International Law, Vol.21, no. 2, EJIL.

27.Werksman, Jacob (1995). “Consolidating Governance of the Global Commons: Insights from the Global Environment Facility”, Yearbook ofInternational Environmental Law.

C) Documents and Cases

  1. Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, adopted (17 October 2003).
  2. Convention on Biological Diversity, in 31 I.L.M. 818, 822, (5 June 1992).
  3. Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, 33 ILM 1332 (1994)
  4. ICJ, Barcelona Traction, light and power company, limited, second phase, Judgment, ICJ reports 1970.
  5. ICJ, Case Concerning the Gabčikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia), 1977 ICJ Rep. 7, separate opinion of Vice-President Weeramantry.
  6. ICJ, Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to NuclearDisarmament (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom), Dissenting Opinion Of Judge Cançado Trindade.
  7. ICJ, Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v. Japan: New Zealand intervening) Judgment of 31 March 2014, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Cançado Trindade.
  8. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Draft InternationalCovenant on Environment and Development (2004).
  9. ITLOS, Responsibilities and Obligations of States Sponsoring Persons and Entities with respect toActivities in the Area (Advisory Opinion) (International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea,Seabed Disputes Chamber, Case No 17, 1 February 2011.

10. Paris Agreement, twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, C.N.63.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d, (12 December 2015).

11.Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) [Agenda 21], UN Doc A/CONF.151/26 (1992).

12.Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), vol I, ch 1, annex I, ‘RioDeclaration on Environment and Development’ [RioDeclaration], UN Doc A/CONF.151/26 (1992), 31 ILM 874, (1992).

13.Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, UN Doc E/73/II.A/14 (1972), 11 ILM 1416, 1419 (1972).

14.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 31 I.L.M. 849, 851(9 May 1992).