نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه حقوق، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در عصر اطلاعات با تغییر میدان‌های نبرد، جامعۀ بین‌المللی در مواجهه با جنگ‌های سایبری است. حملات سایبری امروزه دستۀ جداگانه از روش‌های جنگی را تشکیل می‎دهند و در عین حال می‎توانند نمایانگر نوع جدیدی از توسل به زور باشند، زیرا این توانایی را دارند که موجب ایجاد آثاری مانند صدمات عظیم و وسیع به زیرساخت‌های حیاتی یک دولت، تخریب اموال و از دست رفتن جان انسان‌ها شوند. به این ترتیب چه عملیات جنگی در یک مخاصمه تنها متشکل از حملات سایبری باشد و چه جنگ سایبری بخشی از یک مخاصمه با روش‌های متداول جنگی باشد، به‌هنگام کاربرد این روش نوین مخاصمه باید قواعد حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه اعمال شود و دولت‌ها ملزم به رعایت این تعهدند که وسایل و شیوه‌های جدید مورد استفاده در جنگ‌ها، در تطابق با قواعد حاکم بر حقوق بین‎الملل بشردوستانۀ موجود باشد. این مقاله درصدد است نشان دهد تا زمانی‌که قواعد خاص حقوق بشردوستانۀ بین‌المللی در مخاصمات سایبری تدوین نشده باشد، همچنان می‎توان با توسل به اصول و قواعد موجود، روش‌های نبرد سایبری را در چارچوب حقوق بین‎الملل بشردوستانه به نظم درآورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Applicability of International Humanitarian law in Cyber warfare

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nazanin Baradaran 1
  • Homayoun Habibi 2

1 Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Allameh Tabataba'i, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Abstract
In the information age, because the battlefields are shifted, the international community is threatened by cyber war fares. Today, cyber-attacks are considered as a separate category in different methods of warfare and at the same time, they can represent a novel type of use of force since they may lead to impacts such as massive damages to the critical infrastructure of a government, property damages, and loss of human lives. Therefore, when using this novel method of confliction, whether a war operation in a conflict solely consists of cyber-attacks or cyber warfare is a part of a military conflict with several tactics, principles of international humanitarian law must be applied and the governments must abide by the obligation according to which, the new means and methods they use in cyber warfare are in accordance with the existing principles of international humanitarian law.
This article aims to prove that until specific principles of international humanitarian law in cyber war fares are not developed, by means of resorting to the existing principles and rules, cyber conflicts can still be defined within the framework of the principles of international humanitarian law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • War
  • cyber
  • attack
  • law
  • force

. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا (1392). حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه، چ اول، تهران: گنج دانش.

2. فضلی، مهدی (1389). مسئولیت کیفری در فضای سایبر، چ اول، تهران: خرسندی.

 

ب) مقالات

3. پاکزاد، بتول (1390)، «تروریسم سایبری»، مجلۀ تحقیقات حقوقی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، ویژه‌نامۀ شمارۀ 4.

 

2.انگلیسی

A) BOOKS

4. Boothby, William H. , (2009). Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxford University Press.

5. Bothe,Michael,Partsch,KARL Josef,Solf,Waldemar A.,(1982). New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts,Leiden , Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

6. Dinstein , Yoram,( 2010). The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict. 2nd edn , cup.

7. Greenwood , Christopher, (1998). “Law of Weaponary at the Start of the New Millennium.” in MN Schmitt and LC Green, (eds).,The Law of Armed Conflict :Into the Next Millennium(Naval War College ,Newport,RI).

8. Hampson, F.J. (1993). “Means and Methods of Warefare in the Conflict in the Gulf. in P. J. Rowe (ed), The Gulf War of 1990-1991 in International and English Law ,Routledge, London.

9. Harrison Dinniss, Heather, (2012). Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War,Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law.

10. Kalshoven, Frits, (2007). Reflections on the Law of War: Collected Essays ,Martinus Nijhof.

11. Roscini, Marco, (2010).“ World Wide Warfare- Jus ad Bellum and Use of Cyber Force, Max Plank Yearbook of United Nations Law, Vol.14.

 

 

 

B) Articles

12. Dinstein ,Yoram, (2012).“The Principle of Distinction and Cyber War in International Armed Conflicts, Journal of Conflict and Security Law,Vol.17,No.2.

13. Jensen, Eric Talbot (2002). “UnexpectedConsequences from Knock-On Effects: A Different Standard for Computer Network Operations? , 18 American University Intl L Rev 1145.

14. Jensen, E.T.(2002). “Computer Attacks on Critical State Infrastructure: A Use of force Invoking the Right of self – Defence”, 38 Stanford J Intl L 207.

15. JH Doyle Jr, (2002). Computer Networks, Proportionality, and Military Operations, International Law Studies 147,Vol.76, 200

16. Schmitt, Michael N. (1998).“ Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law, Thoughts on a Normative Framework,Colum.J.Transnat’IL.,No.37,

17. Shacketford, Scott J. (2009). “From Nuclear war to Net war: Analogizing cyber Attacks in Interactional Law, Berkley Journal of International Law , 192 et seq.

18. Shulman , M.R. (1999). “Discrimination in the Laws of Information Warefare,Col.J.Trans.L.

19. Tsagourias , Nicholas,(2012) .“ Cyber Attacks , Self Defence and the Problem of Attribution”, Journal of Conflict and Security Law ,Oxford University Press, Vol.17, No.

20. Watts, Sean , (2010). “Combatant Status and Computer Network Attacks, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol.50-2, (2do).

 

C) Cases

21. Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. USA) (Merits)[ 1986] ICJ.

22. Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina V Serbia) [2007] ,ICJ.

23. International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons,ICJ.1996.

24. Prosecutor V Galić (Judgment) ICTY-98-29 (5 December 2003).

25. Prosecutor V DuskoTadic ‘a/k/a’ DULE (Appeal) ICTY – 94-1- A(15 JULY 1999.

 

D) Documents

26. AMW Manual (Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warefare, 15 May 2009.

27. Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12 August 1949.

28. Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva, 12 August 1949.

29. Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.

30. Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Opened for Signature 12 August 1949, Entered Into Force 21 October 1950).

31. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977.

32. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977.

33. Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare,” Prepared by the International Group of Experts at the Invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence , General Editor: Michael N.Schmitt, Cambridge University Press, New York , 2011.

34. UK MOD, “Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict”, (MOD 2004(.

 

E) Websites

35. https://ccdcoe.org/tallinn-manual.html.(last visited on 2017-06-22).

36. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_78170.htm. (last visited on 2017-06-22).