نویسنده

استادیار، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه (س)، قم، ایران

چکیده

دولت‌ها به‌دلیل حاکمیتی که دارند، باید از ساکنان سرزمینشان در مقابل بلایای طبیعی محافظت کرده و به آنان امدادرسانی کنند. اما واقعیت آن است که توان همۀ دولت‌ها برای امدادرسانی یکسان و کافی نیست و در بسیاری از موارد بدون کمک‌های امدادی از سایر کشورها و نهادهای بین‌المللی کار امدادرسانی غیرممکن می‏‌شود. به‌دلیل اهمیت این موضوع، کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل با در دستور کار خود قرار دادن آن، پس از سال‌ها فعالیت، پیش‌نویس متن معاهده‌‏ای را تهیه و به مجمع عمومی ارسال کرده است. براساس این پیش‌نویس امدادرسانی وظیفۀ دولت آسیب‌دیده است و رضایت این دولت عنصر لازم برای دریافت کمک‌های خارجی است، هرچند دولت آسیب‌دیده حق مخالفت بدون دلیل با ارسال کمک از خارج را ندارد. اعمال تئوری مسئولیت حمایت را می‌توان از جمله عوامل استقبال دولت‌ها در ارسال کمک برای دولت‌های آسیب‌دیده در اثر سوانح طبیعی دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Obligation of States for Acceptance and Sending Humanitarian Assistance During Natural Disasters

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Hesam Lesani

Assistant Prof., University of Hazrat-e Masoumeh, Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

States have the obligation to protect the people who live in their territory and assist them during natural disasters because States have Sovereignty. But the reality is that all of the States have not the same power and so humanitarian assistance without the cooperation of other states and international organizations is impossible. ILC has studied on this subject for some years and finally completed a draft articles and sending it to the states for getting their opinions. Under ILC draft affected state has obligation to make available humanitarian assistance for its people and its consent is the essential element for sending humanitarian assistance to it although affected state does not have to object to humanitarian assistance arbitrarily. The Responsibility to protect is the most important reason that states make available humanitarian assistance for affected states.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Natural disasters
  • Humanitarian Assistance
  • international law commission
  • Affected State
  • the Responsibility to Protect

A) Books

1. Ensor Gready P. (eds) (2005). Reinventing development? Translating rights-based approaches From theory into practice. Zed Books, London

2.Sandoz Yves and others, eds.,(1987). Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross

3.Vattel Emerich,(1916). The Law of Nations or the Principles of Natural Law Applied to the Conduct and to theAffairs of Nations and of Sovereigns, translated by Charles G. Fenwick (Washington, D.C), Carnegie Institution

 

B) Articles

4.Evans, Gareth (2006).”From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect”, Wisconsin International Journal, vol.24,no.3 Law

5.Ford, Stuart (2010).” Is The Failure To Respond Appropriatly To A Natural Disaster A Crime Against Humanity? The Responsibility To Protect and Individual Criminal Responsibility In The Aftermath Of Cyclone Nargis”, Denver Journal of International Law and Policy,Vol.38:2,

6. Heath J.Benton (2011). “Disaster, relief and neglect: the duty to accept humanitarian assistance and the work of the International Law Commission”. Int Law Politics 43:419–477

7.Joyner Christopher (2007). "The Responsibility to Protect": Humanitarian Concern and the Lawfulness of Armed Intervention, 47 VA. J. INT'L L.

8. Mydans Stth, & Cooper Helen (2008).”Aid for Myanmar Mobilizes”,N.Y.Times,May 7 at Al

9.Stahn Carsten (2007).”Responsibility to Protect :Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm?”, 101 AM. J. INT'L L.

 

C) Documents

10. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child,1990

11 .Agreement Establishing the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency, 1991

12. ASEAN Agreement on disaster Management and Emergency Response, 2005

13. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 12 (The right toadequate food (art. 11)), 1999

14. Comment From The UN Office For The Coordination Of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 2016

15. Comments by AUSTRIA about ILC Draft Articles on the Protection of persons in the event of disasters

16. Convention Establishing an International Relief Unio, 1927

17. Convention on the Trans boundary Effects of Industrial Accidents,1992

18. Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency,1986

19. Draft Convention on Expediting the Delivery of Emergency Assistance, 1984

20. Framework Convention on Civil Defence Assistance,2000