نویسندگان

1 گروه حقوق، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، ایران

2 گروه حقوق، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، ایران؛ استادیار، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه حقوق عمومی، دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی،تهران، ایران

چکیده

حاکمیت قانون، به مفهوم تحدید قدرت خودسرانۀ دولت به‌منظور حفظ حقوق و آزادی‌های بنیادین فردی از ارکان اساسی دموکراسی است. از سوی دیگر در عرصۀ بین‌المللی، حاکمیت قانون ابزاری در جهت حفظ صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی ترویج و اعتلای حقوق بشر و پایبندی ارکان تصمیم‌گیر به مقررات پذیرفته‌شده است. با توجه به ساختار و واقعیت‌های حاکم بر جامعۀ بین‌المللی، مفهوم حاکمیت قانون در عرصۀ بین‌المللی به‌صورت متفاوتی از حقوق داخلی اعمال خواهد شد. حاکمیت قانون در حقوق بین‌الملل به مفهوم محدودیت حاکمیت و اختیارات دولت‌ها از طریق قواعد و مقررات حقوقی است. دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری به‌عنوان ارگان قضایی اصلی ملل متحد که از صلاحیت عام برخوردار است، در برقراری و حفظ حاکمیت قانون در جامعۀ بین‌المللی نقش اساسی و محوری دارد. در واقع دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در جریان رسیدگی قضایی خود و در کنار حل‌وفصل اختلافات مطروحه به‌عنوان یک وظیفۀ سازمانی به برقراری و تقویت حاکمیت بین‌المللی قانون نیز مبادرت می‌ورزد. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی روش‌هایی است که دیوان برای برقراری و تقویت حاکمیت بین‌المللی قانون از آنها استفاده می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of International Court of Justice in Establishment of International Rule of Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Hajizadeh 1
  • Heybatollah Najandimanesh 2
  • Mohammad Hosein Zarei 3

1 PhD in Public International Law , Faculty of Law , Theology and Islamic Teachings , Islamic Azad University of Najafabad , Iran

2 Faculty of Law , Theology and Islamic Teachings , Islamic Azad University of Najafabad , Iran; Assistant Prof , Faculty of Law and Political Science , University of Allameh Tabatabaei , Tehran , Iran

3 Associate Prof, Faculty of Law, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The rule of law meaning to limitation of arbitrary power and conservation of fundamental individual rights and freedoms , is one of the democracy foundations. The Rule of law in international level is instrument for preservation of international peace and promotion of human rights. In attention to structure and realities of international community , apply rule of law differently in international level. The rule of law in international level means to limitation of sovereignty and authorities of States by legal rules. The ICJ as a principle judicial organ of the UN , takes fundamental role in establishment and preservation of rule of law in international community. The ICJ aside of the settlement of conflicts , has the diverse tools for reinforcement of international rule of law. This research is seeking to review and explain of ICJ’methodes for the establishment and reinforcement of international rule of law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Rule of Law
  • International Law
  • International Court of Justice
  • Legal Rules
  • Judicial review

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. میرعباسی، سید باقر؛ سادات میدانی، سید حسین (1384). دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در تئوری و عمل، تهران: جنگل.

 

ب) مقالات

2. پتکولسکو، یوانا (1387). بررسی تصمیمات شورای امنیت سازمان ملل متحد توسط دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری، ترجمۀ محمدعلی صلح چی و هیبت‌اله نژندی‌منش، الهیات و حقوق، ش 28، ص 194 – 161.

3. زارعی، محمدحسین (1387). حاکمیت قانون و دموکراسی: سازگاری یا تعارض؟، مجلۀ تحقیقات حقوقی، ش 48، ص 105 – 65.

4. کدخدایی، عباسعلی؛ مقامی، امیر (1395). ساختار آنالوگ حقوق بین‌الملل، فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 46، ش 3، ص 489 – 465.

 

2. انگلیسی

A)   Books

5. Amerasinhe, C. F( 1996). Principles of the Institutional Law of International Organizations, Cambridge University Press.

6. Bennouna, Mohamed (2014). The International Court of Justice: Bestriding Past and Present, Enhancing the Rule of Law Through the International Court of Justice, Giorgio Gaja, Jenny Grote Stoutenburg,Brill Nijhoff.

7. Brownlie, Ian ( 1998). Public International law, Fifth Edition, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

8. Cassese, Antonio (2005). International Law, Second Edition, Oxford University Press.

9. Costa Pietro and Zolo Danilo (2007). The Rule of Law, History, Theory and Criticism, Springer.

10. Greenwood, Christopher (2014). Judicial Integrity and the Advisory Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice, Enhancing the Rule of Law Through the International Court of Justice, Giorgio Gaja, Jenny Grote Stoutenburg,Brill Nijhoff.

11. Kawano, Mariko (2014). Decisions of the International Court of Justice on Disputes Concerning Internal Law, Enhancing the Rule of Law Through the International Court of Justice, Giorgio Gaja, Jenny Grote Stoutenburg,Brill Nijhoff.

12. Kolb, Robert (2013). The International Court of Justice, Oxford & Portl, Hart Publishing.

13. Möhrlein, Rosa (2014). Act – dependent Judicial Review of Security Council and General Assembly Resolutions, Enhancing the Rule of Law Through the International Court of Justice, Giorgio Gaja, Jenny Grote Stoutenburg,Brill Nijhoff.

14. Trindade, Antonio Augusto Cancado (2014). Reflections on a Century of International Justice and Prospects for the Future, Enhancing the Rule of Law Through the International Court of Justice, Giorgio Gaja, Jenny Grote Stoutenburg,Brill Nijhoff.

 

B)   Articles

15. Bogdandy, Armin von (2006). “Constitutionalism in International Law: Comment on a Proposal from Germany”, Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 47, Num. 1, pp. 223 – 242.

16. Gill, Terry D (1995). “Legal and Some Political Limitations on the Power of the UN Security Council to Exercise its Enforcement Powers under Chapter VII of the Charter”, Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 26, pp. 33 – 138.

17. Gowlland-Debbas, Vera (1994) . “The Relationship between the International Court of Justice and the Security Council in the Light of the Lockerbie Case”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 88, No. 4,pp. 643 – 677.

18. Martenczuk, Bernd (1999). “The Security Council, the International Court of Justice and Judicial Review: What Lessons from Lockerbie?”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 517 – 547.

19. Sabahi, Babback (2004) .  “The ICJ’s Authority to Invalidate the Security Council’s Decisions under Chapter VII: Legal Romanticism or the Rule of Law?”, New York International Law Review,Vol.17, pp. 1 – 52.

20. Vi˜nuales, Jorge E (2008). “The Contribution of the International Court of Justice to the Development of International Environmental Law: A Contemporary Assessment”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, pp. 232 – 258.

 

C)   Cases

21. ICJ (2010). Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinions, ICJ Reports .

22. ICJ (2005). Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, ICJ Reports.

23. ICJ (1949). Corfu Channel(United Kingdom v. Albania), ICJ Reports.

24. ICJ (2012). Judgment No. 2867 of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization upon a Complaint Filed against the International Foud for Agricultural Development, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports.

25. ICJ (2012). Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece intervening), Judgment, ICJ Reports.

26. ICJ (1971). Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970), Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports.

27. ICJ (1996). Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports.

28. ICJ (1986), Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States ofAmerica), Merits, Judgment, ICJ Reports.

29. ICJ (2012), Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal), Judgment, ICJ Reports.

 

D)    Documents

30 - General Assembly, Declaration of the high – level meeting of the General Assembly on the Rule of law at the national and international levels, 24 September 2012, A/RES/67/1.

31. General Assembly, Strengthening and coordinating United Nations rule of law activities, Report of the Secretary - General, 11 July 2014, A/68/213/Add.1.

32. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 13, 1984.

33. HumanRights Committee, General Comment No. 32, 2007.

 

E)    Sites

34. Higgins, Rosalyn (2006) . The ICJ, The United Nations System, and the Rule of Law, London School of Economics and Political Sience, available at: http://www.lse.ac.ukl.Collections/LSE Public Lectures And Events/pdf/20061113-higgins.pdf,12/20/14.

35. Statement by HE Judge P. Tomka, President of the Court, available at the Court’s official website: http://www.icj-cij.org/presscom/files/0/17100.pdf (accessed 19 November 2012).