نویسنده

استادیار، گروه حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران

چکیده

ویژگی خاص قواعد حاکم بر اتحادیۀ اروپا و صلاحیت خارجی اتحادیه در انعقاد معاهدات بین‌المللی، به حاکمیت دو نظام حقوقی مستقل در خصوص معاهدات دوجانبۀ سرمایه‌گذاری میان دول عضو اتحادیه و دولت‌های ثالث منجر شده است؛ رژیم مبتنی‌بر حقوق داخلی دول عضو در چارچوب حقوق بین‌الملل و رژیم مبتنی بر حقوق اتحادیۀ اروپا. از این منظر تداخل صلاحیت اتحادیه و دول عضو در انعقاد معاهدات دوجانبۀ سرمایه‌گذاری موجد ابهاماتی است که در اعتبار این معاهدات تأثیرگذار است. همچنین استناد به فرض برتری قواعد حاکم بر اتحادیه، با تأثیر بر اعتبار معاهدات دوجانبۀ دولت‌های عضو و دول ثالث، فرض نقض حقوق بین‌الملل و مسئولیت بین‌المللی اتحادیه و دول عضو را مطرح می‌کند. هرچند برخی از قواعد حاکم بر اتحادیه حاوی راهکارهایی در این خصوص است، هنوز چالش‌هایی در بحث انعقاد و اعتبار این معاهدات در سطح اتحادیه وجود دارد که مؤید فقدان ثبات و امنیت، به‌عنوان مؤلفه‌های اصلی جذب سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی، نسبت به سرمایه‌گذاری در داخل اتحادیه است. در این مقاله برآنیم تا ضمن طرح چالش‌های موجود در این زمینه، راهکارها و ظرفیت‌های حقوقی مطرح در سطح اتحادیۀ اروپا را بررسی کنیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Bilateral Investment Treaties on the Ups and Downs of the Conclusion and the Validity in European Union

نویسنده [English]

  • Raheleh Seyed Morteza Hosseiny

Assistant professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Kharazmi University,Tehran,Iran

چکیده [English]

The specificity of the rules governing the European Union and the foreign competence of the Union to conclude the international treaties has led to the two independent legal systems regarding bilateral investment treaties between the member states of the Union and third countries; a regime based on the domestic law in the framework of international law and the EU-based regime. The conflict between the competence of the Union and its member states to conclude bilateral investment treaties, creates ambiguities which can effect to the validity of these treaties. Also the assumption of the supremacy of Union rules with the effect on the validity of bilateral treaties between member states and third countries, drew the assumption of the violation of international law and the international responsibility of the Union and the member states. Although some rules of Union Law contain approaches in this regard, there are still challenges in the concluding and the validity of these treaties at the Union level, which could be a sign of instability and unsaifty, as the main components in the attracting foreign investment in EU. In this paper, we are going to examine the challenges and their legal approaches at the EU level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • European Union
  • Foreign Investment
  • European Commission
  • European Court of Justice
  • Bilateral Investment Treaties

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A) Books

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28. Monar, J., (2010). "The rejection of the EU-US SWIFT Interim Agreement by the EP: A historic vote and its implications", European Foreign Affairs Review, vol.15, 143–151.

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C) Cases

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50. ECJ Case C-459/03, Commission v. Ireland, [2006] ECR (Europan Court of Justice) I-4635

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54. ECJ Case C-246/07, Commission v. Sweden [PFOS], judgment of 20 April 2010

55. ECJ Case 22/70 AETR [1971] ECR 263

56. ECJ Opinion 1/94, Competence of the Community to conclude international agreements concerning services and the protection of intellectual property, [1994] ECR I-5267

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58. ECJ Opinion, 2/94 (1994) ECR – I- 5267

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60. German Constitutional Court, Lisbon Treaty, Judgment of 30.6.2009,

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D) Documents

65. Council Conclusions on the Communication of the EC towards a future European investment policy, 25 October 2010

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66. European Commission, Commission asks Member States to terminate their intra-EU bilateral investment treaties, Brussels, 18 June 2015

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67. Proposal for establishing transitional arrangements for bilateral investment agreements between member states and third countries, Brussels, 7.7.2010, COM (2010)344 final, 2010/0197 (COD) Available at: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2010/july/tradoc_146308.pdf. Accessed 29/6/2016

68. Regulation (Eu) No 1219/2012 of The European Parliament and of The Council of 12 December 2012, “establishing transitional arrangements for bilateral investment agreements between Member States and third countries”, Official Journal of the European Union, L 351/40, 20.12.2012.