نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دورۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

پس از شروع جنگ داخلی در سوریه و گسترش آن به عراق، دولت ایران مستشاران نظامی خود را بنابر دعوت دولت‌های عراق و سوریه به این کشورها اعزام کرد. ازاین‌رو حضور آنان بنابر رضایت و دعوت دولت میزبان بوده و در تطابق با حقوق بین‌الملل بوده است. مسئلۀ اساسی در این نگاشته، مصونیت مستشاران نظامی ایران نزد محاکم دولت‌های میزبان است. با توجه به کنوانسیون مأموریت‌های ویژه که امروزه به‌عنوان عرف بین‌المللی پذیرفته شده، پیش‌نویس طرح کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل در خصوص مصونیت کیفری مقامات دولتی نزد دادگاه‌های سایر دولت‌ها و همچنین وجود قراردادهای نظامیِ متعددی، که در آن به مصونیت نیروهای مستشاری (که بخشی از نیروهای نظامی‌اند) اشاره‌ شده است، می‌توان دریافت مستشاران نظامی ایران نزد دادگاه‌های عراق و سوریه از مصونیت برخوردارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Immunity of Iranian military advisers in Iraq and Syria

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Rezazadeh 1
  • Elham Aminzadeh 2

1 PhD student of International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Public and International Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Following the start of the internal war in Syria and its expansion to Iraq, the Iranian government sent its military advisers to these countries on invitation of the Iraqi and Syrian governments. Therefore, their presence was in accordance with the consent and invitation of the host government and in accordance with international law. The main issue in this article is the immunity of Iran's military advisers to the courts of host governments. According to the Convention on special missions that nowadays accepted as international customary, international law commission draft about Immunity of State officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction and the existence of numerous military contracts, in which refer to the military advisers immunity (which are part of the armed forces), Iran's military advisers should be immune from the Iraqi and Syrian courts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • military advisers
  • Immunity
  • special mission conventions
  • international law commission
  • military contracts

1. فارسی

1. توکلی طبسی، علی؛ منصوری، فرنگیس (بهار - تابستان 1394). «تعهد و التزام متخاصمین به قواعد حقوق بشردوستانه در مخاصمۀ داخلی سوریه»، مجلۀ حقوقی بین‌المللی، ش 52، ص 204-159.

2. معین، محمد (1386). فرهنگ فارسی، تهران، ج 2، چ چهارم، تهران: انتشارات ادنا.

 

2.انگلیسی

A)   Articles

3. Aurel Sari (2008). status of forces and status of mission agreements under ESDP: THE EUs Evolving Practice, EJIL, vol. 19, no.1, pp 67-100.

4. Bockslaff, Klaus and Koch Micheal (1982). the tabatabai case: the immunity of special envoys and the limits of judicial review, GERMAN yearbook of international law, pp 539-584.

5. Nikołajew, Jerzy (2013). the concept and classification of special missions under international law doctrine, Review of comparative law, Volume XVIII, pp 129-146.

6. Scott sheeran (2010). UN peacekeeping and the model status of forces agreement, United Nations peacekeeping law reform project, school of law, university of Essex, pp 1-53.

7. Wood, Michael (2012). the immunity of official visitors, Max Planck yearbook of United Nations law, vol 16, pp 36-98.

 

B)   Cases

8. European Court of Human Rights Judgment (2001). Case Of McElhinney v. Ireland.

9. European Court of Human Rights Judgment (2014). Case Of Jones and Others v. The United Kingdom.

10. Icj report (2002). Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant, (Democratic Republic Of The Congo v. Belgium).

 

C)   Documents

11. Advisory committee on issues of public international law (2011). advisory report on the immunity of foreign state officials, advisory report NO. 20, The Hague, 1-50.

12. agreement between the government of Australia and the government of The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste concerning the restoration and maintenance of security in Timor-Leste.

13. Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic on deployment of an aviation group of the Russian Armed Forces on the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic.

14. A/RES/62/66

15. between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on the Status of NATO Forces and NATO personnel conducting mutually agreed NATO-led activities in Afghanistan

16. International security advisory board (16 January 2015), Report on status of forces agreement,1-70.

17. R. A. Kolodkin(2010), Second report on immunity of State officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction, UN Doc. A/CN.4/631.

18. R. A. Kolodkin (2008), Preliminary report on immunity of State officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction, UN Doc. A/CN.4/601.

19. Report of the International Law Commission, Sixty-sixth session, (5 May–6 June and 7 July–8 August 2014), Supplement No. 10 (A/69/10), 229-237.

20. Report of the International Law Commission, sixty-eighth session (2 May–10 June and 4 July–12 August 2016), Supplement No. 10,( A/71/10), 341-363.

21. Security and Defense cooperation agreement between The Islamic Republic Of Afghanistan and The United States Of America

22. Status of forces agreement between the government of The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste and the government of United States of America

23. Year book of international law commission (1967), vol. ll.